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Table 1 Child demographic characteristics

From: Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

   Number of children (%)  
Child demographic characteristics All children (n = 500)a With male parent/s (n = 91) With female parent/s (n = 400)
Gender
 Male 264 (53) 49 (54) 214 (54)
 Female 230 (46) 40 (44) 182 (46)
Mean age, years 5.12 3.86 5.43
Median age, years 4 2 4
Age range, years 0-17 0-16 0-17
Geographical location
 Inner metropolitan 261 (52) 64 (70) 195 (49)
 Outer metropolitan 123 (25) 10 (11) 106 (27)
 Regional center 69 (14) 3 (3) 66 (17)
 Rural 35 (7) 8 (9) 27 (7)
 Remote 1 (<1) 0 (0) 1 (<1)
 Other 8 (2) 3 (3) 5 (1)
State
 Victoria 244 (48) 41 (45) 196 (49)
 New South Wales 89 (18) 26 (29) 63 (16)
 Queensland 74 (15) 3 (3) 71 (18)
 Western Australia 30 (6) 6 (7) 24 (6)
 South Australia 26 (5) 6 (7) 18 (5)
 Australian Capital Territory 23 (5) 6 (7) 17 (4)
 Tasmania 14 (3) 3 (3) 11 (3)
Country of birth
 Australia 427 (85) 31 (34) 387 (97)
 India 36 (7) 36 (40) 0 (0)
 USA 21 (4) 20 (22) 1 (<1)
 UK 6 (1) 0 (0) 6 (2)
 New Zealand 2 (<1) 1 (1) 1 (<1)
 Thailand 1 (<1) 1 (1) 0 (0)
 Other 7 (1) 2 (2) 5 (1)
Language
 English only 444 (89) 65 (71) 374 (93)
 Language other than English 56 (11) 26 (29) 26 (7)
Index parent’s highest level of education
 4 years high school 8 (2) 0 (0) 8 (2)
 Year 12 28 (6) 7 (8) 21 (5)
 Diploma or certificate 77 (15) 11 (12) 61 (15)
 Undergraduate degree 133 (27) 33 (36) 98 (25)
 Postgraduate degree 232 (46) 36 (40) 194 (49)
 Other 19 (4) 4 (4) 15 (4)
Household income (AUD)
 $10,000-$19,000 13 (3) 0 (0) 13 (3)
 $20,000-$29,999 25 (5) 4 (4) 16 (4)
 $30,000-$59,999 56 (11) 4 (4) 50 (13)
 $60,000-$99,999 112 (22) 11 (12) 101 (25)
 $100,000-$149,999 129 (26) 23 (25) 106 (27)
 $150,000-$249,999 95 (19) 22 (24) 71 (18)
 $250,000 or more 70 (14) 27 (30) 43 (10)
Index parent’s sexual orientation
 Lesbian 344 (69) - 337 (84)
 Gay 92 (18) 85 (93) 7 (2)
 Bisexual 41 (8) 1 (1) 40 (10)
 Queer 11 (2) 2 (2) 9 (2)
 Heterosexual 3 (1) 0 (0) 3 (1)
 Other 9 (2) 3 (3) 4 (1)
Transgender parent 6 (1) 2 (2) 1 (<1)
Child relationship to index parentb
 Biological child 310 (62) 46 (51) 256 (64)
 Non-biological child 123 (24) 18 (20) 104 (26)
 Partner’s biological child 98 (20) 17 (19) 80 (20)
 Fostered 13 (3) 8 (9) 5 (1)
 Adopted 2 (<1) 2 (2) 0 (0)
Parent relationship status at time of conception, fostering or adoption
 Current relationship 347 (69) 66 (73) 279 (70)
 Index parent’s previous heterosexual relationship 50 (10) 10 (11) 40 (10)
 Index parent’s previous same-sex relationship 37 (7) 2 (2) 35 (9)
 While index parent single 33 (7) 8 (9) 23 (6)
 Partner’s previous heterosexual relationship 19 (4) 0 (0) 19 (5)
 While partner single 2 (<1) 2 (2) 0 (0)
 Other 5 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1)
Where child lives
 With index parent full time 411 (82) 70 (77) 335 (84)
 With index parent part time 50 (10) 16 (18) 24 (6)
 With another parent full time 12 (2) 3 (3) 9 (2)
 Lives independently 1 (<1) 0 (0) 1 (<1)
 Other 24 (5) 2 (2) 19 (5)
Index parent currently in a relationship 464 (93) 83 (91) 374 (94)
Method of conceptionb
 Heterosexual intercourse 102 (20) 18 (20) 79 (20)
 Home insemination – known or own gametes 137 (27) 7 (8) 127 (32)
 ARTc – unknown donor 148 (30) 3 (3) 145 (36)
 ART – known donor or own gametes 51 (10) 2 (2) 48 (12)
 Surrogacy – own gametes 44 (9) 42 (46) 1 (<1)
 Surrogacy – unknown donor 23 (5) 23 (25) 0 (0)
 Surrogacy – known donor 10 (2) 10 (11) 0 (0)
  1. a.Includes data from 5 children with other gendered parents and 4 children where parent gender was not identified.
  2. b.Multiple responses possible.
  3. c.Assisted Reproductive Technology.