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Table 2 Multilevel binary logistic regression analyses testing for differences according to ethnic background

From: Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study

  Language spoken at home (N = 6000) Country of birth of biological parents (N = 5977)
  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Correlate ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI
Soft drink         
Unfavorable attitude 0.73* (0.56; 0.96) 0.80 (0.61; 1.05) 0.69*** (0.57; 0.84) 0.73*** (0.60; 0.88)
Incorrect health beliefs 1.19 (0.89; 1.59) 1.21 (0.90; 1.61) 1.11 (0.92; 1.35) 1.12 (0.92; 1.36)
High preference/liking 1.02 (0.80; 1.31) 1.03 (0.80; 1.33) 1.04 (0.88; 1.23) 1.06 (0.90; 1.26)
Unfavorable parental subjective norm 0.80 (0.56; 1.15) 0.86 (0.60; 1.24) 0.82 (0.64; 1.05) 0.86 (0.67; 1.10)
Low parent modeling 1.10 (0.79; 1.52) 1.16 (0.84; 1.61) 0.89 (0.72; 1.09) 0.92 (0.75; 1.13)
Parental practices         
Rules 0.98 (0.78; 1.22) 1.01 (0.80; 1.26) 1.14 (0.98; 1.32) 1.16* (1.00; 1.35)
High allowance 0.80 (0.62; 1.02) 0.84 (0.66; 1.07) 0.98 (0.82; 1.17) 1.02 (0.85; 1.21)
Bought on request 0.83 (0.65; 1.05) 0.84 (0.66; 1.07) 0.89 (0.76; 1.05) 0.90 (0.76; 1.06)
High accessibility 1.04 (0.80; 1.34) 1.09 (0.84; 1.41) 1.17 (0.98; 1.39) 1.21* (1.01; 1.45)
High home availability 0.99 (0.78; 1.25) 1.05 (0.83; 1.32) 1.06 (0.91; 1.24) 1.11 (0.95; 1.29)
Breakfast         
Unfavorable attitudeb 1.58 (0.35; 7.19) 1.68 (0.37; 7.73) 1.00 (0.44; 2.27) 1.04 (0.45; 2.39)
Health beliefs         
Incorrect (eating breakfast) 0.62** (0.44; 0.86) 0.66* (0.47; 0.92) 0.75* (0.59; 0.96) 0.79 (0.62; 1.00)
Incorrect (not eating breakfast) 1.21 (0.96; 1.52) 1.19 (0.95; 1.50) 1.03 (0.88; 1.20) 1.02 (0.87; 1.19)
Low preferences/liking 0.84 (0.52; 1.36) 0.85 (0.52; 1.38) 1.06 (0.75; 1.49) 1.07 (0.75; 1.51)
Unfavorable parental subjective normb 0.61 (0.17; 2.26) 0.66 (0.18; 2.47) 0.51 (0.21; 1.23) 0.53 (0.21; 1.30)
Low parent modeling 1.13 (0.74; 1.73) 1.17 (0.76; 1.80) 1.27 (0.95; 1.70) 1.31 (0.97; 1.76)
Low co-participation 0.94 (0.74; 1.20) 0.99 (0.78; 1.27) 0.92 (0.79; 1.08) 0.96 (0.81; 1.12)
Low levels of active encouragement/parental support 0.99 (0.74; 1.34) 1.01 (0.75; 1.36) 0.86 (0.70; 1.04) 0.87 (0.71; 1.05)
Parental practices         
Rules 0.76* (0.60; 0.97) 0.79* (0.62; 1.00) 0.86 (0.74; 1.00) 0.88 (0.76; 1.03)
Bought on request 0.66*** (0.53; 0.82) 0.67*** (0.54; 0.84) 0.87 (0.75; 1.01) 0.89 (0.77; 1.03)
Low home availabilityb 0.51 (0.26; 1.01) 0.50* (0.25; 1.00) 0.69 (0.41; 1.17) 0.68 (0.40; 1.17)
Physical activity/sports         
Unfavorable attitudec - - - - - - - -
Incorrect health beliefs 0.56*** (0.43; 0.74) 0.60*** (0.46; 0.79) 0.74** (0.61; 0.90) 0.78* (0.64; 0.95)
Low preferences/likingb 0.46 (0.20; 1.02) 0.49 (0.22; 1.11) 0.77 (0.40; 1.49) 0.81 (0.42; 1.57)
Unfavorable parental subjective normb 2.17 (0.27; 17.47) 2.36 (0.29; 19.28) 1.28 (0.45; 3.70) 1.35 (0.46; 3.92)
Low parent modeling 0.70* (0.54; 0.90) 0.74* (0.57; 0.96) 0.73*** (0.61; 0.86) 0.76** (0.64; 0.91)
Low co-participation 0.98 (0.76; 1.26) 1.02 (0.79; 1.31) 1.02 (0.86; 1.20) 1.04 (0.95; 1.14)
Low levels of active encouragement/parental support 0.78 (0.53; 1.14) 0.79 (0.54; 1.15) 0.80 (0.61; 1.04) 0.80 (0.61; 1.05)
Parental practices         
Rules 0.93 (0.73; 1.18) 0.96 (0.75; 1.22) 0.97 (0.83; 1.13) 0.99 (0.85; 1.15)
Low general allowance b 0.48* (0.27; 0.88) 0.55* (0.30; 1.00) 0.62* (0.39; 0.97) 0.67 (0.43; 1.06)
Low specific allowance b 0.60 (0.34; 1.06) 0.65 (0.36; 1.15) 0.77 (0.50; 1.18) 0.82 (0.53; 1.26)
Low home availability 0.43*** (0.33; 0.56) 0.46* (0.36; 0.60) 0.52*** (0.43; 0.62) 0.54*** (0.45; 0.64)
TV Viewing         
Unfavorable attitude 0.43*** (0.32; 0.58) 0.44*** (0.33; 0.59) 0.72** (0.58; 0.89) 0.73** (0.59; 0.91)
Incorrect health beliefs 0.57*** (0.46; 0.72) 0.61*** (0.49; 0.77) 0.60*** (0.51; 0.70) 0.62*** (0.53; 0.73)
High preferences/liking 0.93 (0.72; 1.18) 0.91 (0.71; 1.17) 0.88 (0.74; 1.04) 0.87 (0.74; 1.03)
Unfavorable parental subjective norm 0.51*** (0.35; 0.74) 0.55** (0.38; 0.81) 0.72* (0.55; 0.96) 0.77 (0.58; 1.02)
High parent modeling 0.59*** (0.47; 0.73) 0.61*** (0.49; 0.77) 0.81** (0.70; 0.94) 0.84* (0.72; 0.97)
High co-participation 0.68** (0.51; 0.91) 0.73* (0.55; 0.98) 0.96 (0.80; 1.15) 1.01 (0.85; 1.22)
Parental practices         
Rules 0.80 (0.64; 1.00) 0.85 (0.68; 1.05) 0.93 (0.80; 1.08) 0.96 (0.83; 1.12)
High general allowance 0.64*** (0.50; 0.81) 0.69** (0.54; 0.88) 0.74*** (0.63; 0.87) 0.78** (0.66; 0.92)
High specific allowance 0.67*** (0.53; 0.84) 0.71** (0.57; 0.90) 0.72*** (0.62; 0.84) 0.76*** (0.65; 0.88)
High home availability 0.61*** (0.48; 0.78) 0.71** (0.56; 0.91) 0.66*** (0.56; 0.77) 0.73*** (0.62; 0.86)
  1. aOdds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as derived from multilevel binary logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, testing for differences in likelihood to report favorable or unfavorable personal and home variables regarding soft drink consumption, breakfast, participation in sports, and TV time among 10–12 year old children from native compared to non-native origin according to language spoken at home (uncorrected and corrected for parental education). An OR >1 indicates that native children are more likely to be in the correlate category coded 1 (see Additional file 1 for categorization); an OR <1 indicates that native children are less likely to be in the correlate category coded 1 (see Additional file 1 for categorization). Statistical significant ORs are printed in bold, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  2. bDue to small numbers in one of the two categories, multilevel analysis could not be performed using a second order Penalized Quasi-Likelihood (PQL) estimation procedure. Instead a first order Maximum Quasi-Likelihood (MQL) estimation procedure was used for these potential correlates.
  3. cDue to small numbers in the category bad – very bad (<1%), multilevel analysis could not be performed.