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Table 2 Coding rubric developed to score outcome and conditions at each case school

From: A qualitative comparative analysis of well-managed school sanitation in Bangladesh

Condition fsQCA coding scheme Source
OUTCOME Well-managed sanitation services Minimum of the following two measures: Reliably functional toilets a : Students; Observation; Teachers; Field officer
  1: students have reliable access to functional services; repairs timely addressed  
  0.67: all toilets usually function, but repair needs are not always timely addressed  
  0.33: some toilets are frequently unusable; repairs are not timely addressed  
  0: students do not have reliable access; repairs are rarely addressed  
  and Reliably clean toilets b :  
  1: all toilets are almost always clean and quickly cleaned when dirty  
  0.67: usually more or less clean, with some instances where they remain dirty  
  0.33: frequently unclean and are usually considered unclean by students  
  0: rarely clean and students label them as dirty  
Quality construction 1: high quality materials and constructionc observed; no repair needs due to poor quality Observation; Teachers; Field officer
  0.67: mostly high quality materials and construction observed; very minor repair needs due to poor quality  
  0.33: poor quality materials or construction observed, but so far there have been no repair needs because of this  
  0: poor quality materials or construction observed and have had major repair needs because of this  
Community support 1: community has contributed financially to toilet maintenance when needed Teachers; Field officer
  0.67: community contributes financially, but not every time the school requests help  
  0.33: community members provide limited support, such as providing a few bars of soap  
  0: community does not contribute at all to maintenance of the toilets  
Government support 1: currently has government maintenance (SLIP) fund (app. 240–370 USD/year) and contingency fund (app. 9 USD/month) Teachers; Field officer
  0.67: currently has SLIP fund, but not contingency fund  
  0.33: currently has contingency fund, but not SLIP fund  
  0: the school does not receive any government funding  
Active school management committee 1: Members check the school toilets or talk with students at least once per month, and manage repairs if needed Students; Teachers; Field officer
  0.67: Members visit the school but not regularly (less than once per month) or limited in scope, but have or would manage repairs  
  0.33: Members rarely visit the school and are minimally involved in sanitation  
  0: Members don’t ever visit the school or manage repair needs  
Maintenance plan 1: a specific teacher is responsible for toilet maintenance and has a cleaning schedule which is followed/monitored Students; Teachers; Field officer
  0.67: cleaning schedule usually followed but no specific teacher responsible  
  0: no specific teacher responsible for sanitation; no cleaning schedule or rarely followed  
Sanitation champion 1: someone voluntarily takes extraordinary interest in school sanitation & is recognized by others (without whom hygiene activities would likely diminish or discontinue) Observation; Students; Teachers; Field officer
  0.67: someone leads sanitation activities but doesn’t include all aspects of maintenance and hygiene practices or others are identified who may continue their role  
  0.33: someone takes interest in sanitation at the school, but they don’t always take action or others would likely continue their role in their absence  
  0: There is no one identified as taking interest in sanitation at the school  
  1. a"Functional" = waste is easily flushed, the building structure, doors & locks function providing privacy, water is available, and soap is available in or near the toilet; "Repairs timely addressed" = minor critical repairs (needed for use), such as a door lock or clogged toilet, are repaired within 24 hours, major critical repairs, such as a broken pan or door, are repaired within 1 week, minor non-critical repairs, such as a broken tap, are repaired within 1 week, and major non-critical repairs, such as a broken water pump, are repaired within 1 month.
  2. b"Clean" = no visible feces on the floor/walls/seat, no flies, and no foul smell.
  3. cObservation of construction and materials included quality of the superstructure, slab, piping, toilet pan, and door/lock. Examples of "poor quality" included: improper pan placement limiting water flow, roof caving due to poorly spaced supports, severe concrete scaling or cracking, and exposed or shallow septic tank piping.