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Table 6 Factors associated with multimorbidity in 2010, stratified by sex and age group (N = 1,356,761)

From: Burden of multimorbidity, socioeconomic status and use of health services across stages of life in urban areas: a cross-sectional study

  Women
  Age group (years)
  19-24 25-44 45-64 65-79 80+
  OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Deprivation index                
(ref. Least deprived)    0.024    <0.001    <0.001    0.006    <0.001
Q2 1.10 1.01-1.19   1.06 1.03-1.10   1.07 1.03-1.11   1.01 0.93-1.10   1.20 1.05-1.35  
Q3 1.12 1.03-1.22   1.13 1.09-1.17   1.19 1.14-1.23   1.13 1.03-1.24   1.13 0.99-1.29  
Q4 1.07 0.98-1.17   1.11 1.07-1.15   1.22 1.17-1.27   1.15 1.05-1.27   1.26 1.09-1.46  
Most deprived 1.01 0.92-1.11   1.12 1.08-1.16   1.22 1.16-1.27   1.12 1.01-1.25   1.42 1.21-1.66  
Number of visits (ref. 0)    <0.001    <0.001     <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
1-2 2.05 1.88-2.25   2.29 2.22-2.37   3.55 3.34-3.68   4.88 4.49-5.29   4.00 3.50-4.57  
3-5 3.54 3.25-3.85   3.86 3.75-3.98   7.66 7.41-7.92   13.93 12.87-15.07   11.31 9.91-12.92  
6-10 5.77 5.30-6.29   6.83 6.63-7.04   16.09 15.54-16.66   36.26 33.47-39.28   26.20 22.97-29.88  
≥11 10.42 9.52-11.42   14.14 13.68-14.62   41.82 40.16-43.56   135.23 123.26-148.37   61.90 54.68-70.7  
Deviance of the model$ (empty vs. fitted) ICC&   50846.0 46932.4 4%    332571.7 295933.5 3%    269077.9 212131.5 3%    61840.2 44074.4 4%    23072.6 17583.1 4%  
  Men
  Age group (years)
  19-24 25-44 45-64 65-79 80+
  OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Deprivation index                
(ref. Least deprived)    0.014    0.006    <0.001    0.293    0.166
Q2 0.96 0.87-1.06   1.04 1.00-1.07   1.05 1.02-1.09   1.03 0.95-1.11   1.06 0.90-1.26  
Q3 1.10 1.00-1.21   1.05 1.01-1.10   1.07 1.03-1.12   1.07 0.98-1.16   1.19 0.99-1.43  
Q4 1.01 0.92-1.12   1.03 0.99-1.07   1.10 1.05-1.14   1.08 0.98-1.18   1.24 1.03-1.49  
Most deprived 0.95 0.86-1.05   1.00 0.96-1.04   1.02 0.98-1.07   1.11 1.00-1.22   1.09 0.90-1.33  
Number of visits (ref. 0)    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001    <0.001
1-2 2.05 1.89-2.23   2.43 2.36-2.51   3.46 3.36-3.57   4.23 3.90-4.58   4.59 3.80-5.55  
3-5 3.27 3.01-3.54   4.37 4.24-4.50   7.39 7.17-7.63   11.42 10.57-12.32   12.50 10.41-15.00  
6-10 5.39 4.95-5.87   7.62 7.39-7.87   15.02 14.53-15.52   28.85 26.69-31.19   33.10 27.54-39.78  
≥11 8.87 8.04-9.80   15.99 15.42-16.57   36.18 34.75-37.66   87.17 79.86-95.15   73.21 61.58-87.04  
Deviance of the model$ (empty vs. fitted) ICC&   41661.7 38924.6 4%    293079.3 259335.9 3%    273195.5 215314.5 3%    63565.4 47285.5 3%    13222.1 10076.1 4%  
  1. Multilevel logistic regression*.
  2. Abbreviations: ref reference, Qi deprivation quintiles (Q1, Least deprived to Q5. most deprived); OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ICC Intraclass Correlation Coefficient).
  3. *Primary health care team (PHCT) was considered random variable. All ORs are adjusted for each factor presented in the table. OR represents the odds of multimorbidity for people who are in the corresponding category of the factor compared with those in the reference category.
  4. $The deviance expresses the goodness of fit of the model, and was calculated using the -2*log likelihood. Empty vs. fitted model refers to the model without predictors vs. the model with the individual predictors.
  5. &ICC measures the proportion of the total variance in the outcome that is attributable to the PHCT level after taking into account the individual predictors.