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Table 2 Relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviors and health outcomes among older people in India

From: Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India

  Poor health n = 1672
Adjusted odds ratio
Punjab (urban) 0.417 (0.200–0.868)*
Punjab (rural) 0.414 (0.239–0.719)**
Rajasthan (urban) 0.433 (0.197–0.949)*
Rajasthan (rural) 0.498 (0.290–0.855)**
Kerala (urban) 0.938 (0.543–1.622)
Karnataka (urban) 0.107 (0.037–0.310)***
Karnataka (rural) 0.279 (0.151–0.514)***
Tribe 0.505 (0.199–1.279)
No caste or tribe 0.393 (0.129–1.197)
Gender (female) 1.257 (0.855–1.848)
Age 1.059 (1.043–1.074)**
Marital status (single) 1.727 (1.181–2.527)***
Educational level (low) 1.307 (0.861–1.984)
Smoking (yes) 1.610 (1.048–2.474)*
Physical inactivity (vigorous) 2.437 (1.508–3.937)***
Physical inactivity (moderate) 1.219 (0.820–1.811)
Model χ 2 224.006***
−2 log likelihood 1081.840
Nagelkerke R 2 0.231
  1. Physical inactivity was defined as engagement in activities once a week or less often. * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001. Reference groups for region and caste/tribe affiliation were Kerala (rural) and caste, respectively (largest groups).