Skip to main content

Table 1 Studies examining the relationship between community and consumer nutrition environment and diet in children

From: The community and consumer food environment and children’s diet: a systematic review

Author (Year) FE exposure Diet outcomes (method employed) Location Age group
An et al. [18] Food outlet (FF restaurants, convenience stores, small food stores, grocery stores and large supermarkets) distribution at several distances (varying from 0.1, 0.5, 1,0 to 1.5 miles) from child’s home and school Daily servings of FV, 100% juice, milk, soda, high-sugar foods and FF (self- reported) USA (CA) 5-17 years
Buck et al. [19] Food supply around school calculated using number of stores and restaurants divided by number of residents per area Junk food and simple sugar food consumption per week (FFQ and 24 hour dietary recall) Germany (Lower Saxony) 6-9 years
Davis & Carpenter [20] Proximity and density of FF to school (a half-mile radius) Soda, FV, juice, fried potato foods consumption in past 24 hours (self- reported) USA (CA) Middle school and high school students (no specific age reported)
Ding et al. [21] Self-report proximity of food outlets to home Daily FV intake per day (self-reported) USA (San Diego, Boston, Cincinnati) Two samples 5–11 and 12–18 years
Edmonds et al. [22] FV, 100% juice availability and shelf space in food stores and restaurants around home FV (including fried potatoes), juice consumption per day (24 hour recall) USA (TX) 11-14 years (boys only)
Fraser et al. [23] FF accessibility using 1000m buffer from home FF (restaurant) consumption (self-reported) UK (former Avon county) 13 years
He et al. [24] Junk food density within 1km of home and school; distance from home and school to closest FF restaurant and convenience store Overall diet quality – Healthy Eating Index (FFQ) Canada (ON) 11-14 years
He et al. [25] Junk food density within 1km of home and school; distance from home and school to closest FF restaurant and convenience store Food purchasing behaviour (FF and convenience store) (self-reported) Canada (ON) 11-14 years
Ho et al. [26] Self-report presence of food outlets near home within 5 minute walking Consumption of 4 food groups: high fat foods, junk food/soft drinks, fruit, and vegetables (FFQ) Hong Kong 14.5 years (mean)
Jago et al. [27] Distance to food outlets from home and density of food outlets within a 1-mile radius of the participant's home address FV, 100% juice consumption (FFQ) USA (TX) 10-14 (boys only)
Jennings et al. [28] Food outlet (BMI-healthy and unhealthy) availability within 800m of home Food group intake (Food and drink diary) UK (Norfolk) 9-10 years
Khan et al. [29] *longitudinal FF prices from the Cost of Living Index and FF outlet density FF consumption in the past 7 days (self-reported) USA (nationally representative sample) 5th graders in 2004 and 8th graders in 2007
Laminchhane et al. [30] Accessibility and availability of supermarkets (4 & 6 miles) and FF (1 mile) to home The overall dietary intake quality composed of 8 food groups (grains, vegetables, fruit, dairy, meat, nuts/seeds/legumes, fats/oils, sweets) and food group consumption (DASH Index) USA (SC) 10-20 years (newly diagnosed with diabetes)
Laska et al. [31] Distance and density of all food outlets to home and school (800, 1600 and 3000 m buffer zones) Food group consumption (24 hour recall) USA (MN) 10.8-17.7 years
Leung et al. [32] “Food and retail” scale - Food outlet audit on random street segments within 0.25 mile of home Total energy intake (24 hour recall) USA (CA) 6.5-8.1 years
Longacre et al. [33] Availability of FF outlets – onsite audit FF intake in the past week (self-reported) USA (NH and VT) 12-18 years
Mushi-Brunt et al. [34] Grocery store availability and accessibility – GIS within census tract FV intake (FFQ) USA (Midwestern United States) 6-11 years
Pabayo et al. [35] Food outlet availability within 1km of home SSB intake (soft drink and fruit juice) (self-reported and Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire) Canada (AB) 4-5 years
Powell et al. [36] FV and FF prices from Cost of Living Index Daily FV consumption (self-reported) USA (nationally representative sample) 14.7 years (mean)
Skidmore et al. [37] Distance to nearest food outlet, density/km2 of food outlets within 800 m buffer zone of a child’s home Food choices (consisted of 15 common foods) (Health Behaviour in School Children (HBSC) questionnaire) UK (Norfolk) 9-10 years
Smith et al. [38] *longitudinal Density of food outlets within 400 and 800m network distance from school Healthy vs unhealthy diet scores (self-reported) UK (Newham, Hackney and Tower Hamlets) 12.2 years (mean)
Sturm & Datar [39] Price indices for meat, FV, dairy and FF calculated from Cost of Living Index Consumption of FV, milk, soft drinks and FF in the past 7 days (food consumption questionnaire) USA (nationally representative sample) 11.2 years (mean)
Timperio et al. [40] Availability of 5 types of food outlets within 800m buffer zone of home Consumption of FV (self-reported) Australia (Greater Melbourne and Geelong areas) 5-6 and 10–12 years
Timperio et al. [41] Distance, density and availability of FF/takeaway within 800m of home and school Consumption of FF/takeaway (self-reported) Australia (Greater Melbourne and Geelong areas) 5-6 and 10–12 years
Veugelers et al. [42] Access to food stores from home (poor to excellent) Diet quality index, daily servings of FV, energy from fat (Harvard FFQ) Canada (Nova Scotia) 10-11 years
Wang & Shi [43] Self-reported NBH density of food outlets within 5 km Macronutrient and calorie intake (food consumption questionnaire) China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, and Shandong) 6-18 years
  1. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension: DASH.
  2. Food Frequency Questionnaire: FFQ.
  3. Fruit and Vegetables: FV.
  4. Fast Food: FF.
  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage: SSB.