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Table 2 Neonatal mortality rates (NMR) with 95% confidence interval (CI)

From: Determinants of neonatal mortality in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey

Covariates Total live births Neonatal deaths NMR [95% CI]
Community level factors   
Residence type    
Urban 8070 253 31.3 (29.2- 33.4)
Rural 19077 743 38.9 (36.6- 41.3)
Geopolitical zone    
North Central 3693 122 32.6 (30.6- 34.9)
North East 4452 176 39.6 (37.2- 42.0)
North West 8529 310 35.7 (33.5- 37.9)
South East 2611 107 41.5 (39.1- 43.9)
South West 3516 150 43.4 (40.9- 45.9)
South South 4345 132 30.4 (28.3- 32.5)
Household wealth index    
Poor 12542 499 39.3 (36.9- 41.7)
Middle 10013 355 35.6 (33.4- 37.8)
Rich 4592 142 31.6 (29.5- 33.5)
Individual related factors   
Mother’s religion    
Traditionalist and other 464 19 42.2 (39.8- 44.6)
Islam 15018 520 34.2 (32.0- 36.4)
Catholic and other Christian 11517 451 39.7 (37.3- 42.1)
Missing 148 5  
Mother’s age at first birth    
Less than 20 years 15755 598 37.6 (35.3- 39.9)
20 - 29 years 10702 363 34.2 (32.0- 36.4)
30 - 49 years* 690 35 52.8 (50.1- 55.3)
Mother’s age    
< 20 1471 92 65.0 (62.0- 68.0)
20-29 13096 451 34.5 (32.3- 36.7)
30-39 9797 327 33.1 (30.9- 35.3)
40-49 2783 126 44.7 (42.2- 47.2)
Mother’s literacy level    
Cannot read at all 15391 616 38.1 (35.8- 40.4)
Able to read 10634 370 34.1 (31.8- 36.2)
Mother’s education    
No education 12685 470 36.6 (34.3- 38.9)
Primary 6255 246 39.5 (37.1- 41.9)
Secondary or higher 8207 280 34.6 (32.4- 36.8)
Mother’s desire for pregnancy    
Wanted then 23880 824 34.7 (32.5-36.9)
Wanted later 1669 59 31.2 (31.0- 35.4)
Wanted no more 1150 43 38.3 (36.0- 40.6)
missing 448 71  
Mother’s body mass index (BMI)    
BMI > 18.5 23508 868 37.0 (34.7- 39.3)
BMI ≤ 18.5 3062 110 35.0 (32.8- 37.2)
Missing 577 18  
Mother’s working status    
Not working 9389 332 35.8 (33.5- 38.0)
Working 17121 638 37.1 (34.8- 39.4)
Missing 64 2  
Sex of child    
Female 13342 424 31.7 (29.6- 33.8)
Male 13806 572 41.4 (39.0- 43.8)
Mother’s perceived baby size    
Small or very small 3743 210 57.0 (54.2- 59.8)
Average or larger 22778 685 30.0 (27.9- 32.1)
Missing 626 102  
Birth order and birth interval    
First child 5331 249 47.6 (45.0- 50.2)
2 or 3 child, interval > 2 6444 160 24.3 (22.5- 26.2)
2 or 3 child, interval ≤ 2 2652 135 50.2 (47.5- 52.9)
4 or more child, interval > 2 9369 258 27.3 (25.3- 29.3)
4 or more child, interval ≤ 2 3352 194 57.6 (54.7- 60.5)
Mode of delivery    
Non-caesarean 26660 951 35.8 (33.5- 38.1)
Caesarean section 452 40 89.9 (86.3- 93.5)
Missing 35 5  
Baby weight at birth    
Less than 2500 grammes 349 16 46.6 (44.0- 49.2)
2500 - 3500 grammes 3110 45 14.7 (13.3- 16.1)
Greater than 3500 grammes 1458 15 9.2 (8.1- 10.3)
Not weighed 18923 767 40.7 (38.3- 43.1)
Missing 3307 153  
Delivery assistance    
Health professional 10331 381 37.0 (34.7- 39.3)
non-Health professional 16440 555 33.8 (31.6- 36.0)
Missing 377 61  
Postnatal check-up    
0 - 2 days 4372 112 26.1 (24.2- 28.0)
3 - 41 days 3001 78 26.0 (24.1- 27.9)
Don’t know/missing 19774 806  
Birth place of child    
Health facility 9917 361 36.8 (34.5- 39.1)
Home 16962 579 34.1 (31.9- 36.3)
Missing 268 56  
Antenatal care    
Yes 9421 232 24.6 (22.7- 26.5)
No 6316 169 26.5 (24.6- 28.4)
Missing 11411 595  
  1. *Interval for 30–39 years and 40–49 years were merged.
  2. NMR not calculated for missing values.