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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse in men who have sex with men recruited online versus offline: a meta-analysis

Study Year Country The definition of UAI Sample size Prevalence of UAI among MSM recruited online Prevalence of UAI among MSM recruited offline
Ross et al. [30] 2000 Sweden Never used condom during AI with casual partners in the last year MSM (overall), n = 1,351 9.8% (62/635) 7.5% (54/716)
Rhodes et al. [40] 2002 United States Inconsistent condom use during AI in the last year MSM (overall), n = 498 34.0% (165/382) 41.4% (51/116)
Elford et al. [28] 2004 United Kingdom UAI with serodiscordant or HIV-unknown male partner in the last 3 months HIV-neg MSM, n = 1,254 26.9% (183/680) 18.6% (107/574)
    UAI with serodiscordant or HIV-unknown male partner in the last 3 months HIV-pos MSM, n = 273 47.2% (67/142) 42.0% (55/131)
    UAI with male partner in the last 2 months HIV-unk MSM, n = 570 35.6% (141/396) 19.0% (33/174)
Knapp et al. [29] 2004 United States UAI in the last 2 months MSM (overall), 551 23.8% (73/307) 19.7% (48/244)
Bolding et al. [31] 2005 United Kingdom UAI with casual serodiscordant or HIV- unknown male partner in the last 3 months HIV-neg MSM, n = 1,048 23.8% (75/315) 16.0% (117/733)
    UAI with casual serodiscordant or HIV- unknown male partner in the last 3 months HIV-pos MSM, n = 661 43.3% (29/67) 18.0% (107/594)
    UAI with any casual male partner in the last 3 months HIV-unk MSM, n = 291 20.3% (40/197) 5.3% (5/94)
Hospers et al. [26] 2005 Netherlands UAI with casual partner in the last 6 months MSM (overall), n = 6,185 23.0% (1,146/4,981) 21.0% (253/1,204)
Evans et al. [23] 2007 United Kingdom UAI in the last 3 months MSM (overall), n = 2,182 45.0% (929/2,065) 36.6% (43/117)
Xing et al. [7] 2008 Chinese UAI with male partner in the last anal sex MSM (overall), n = 269 58.1% (36/62) 34.8% (72/207)
Fernández-Dávila et al. [27] 2009 Spain UAI in the last 3 months MSM (overall), n = 2,044 31.0% (384/1,240) 27.0% (217/804)
Tsui et al. [1] 2010 Chinese Engaged in any MSM UAI in the last year MSM (overall), n = 566 53.1% (120/226) 33.8% (115/340)
Raymond et al. [41] 2010 United States UAI MSM (overall), n = 2,297 37.1% (268/455) 42.2% (664/910)
Liu et al. [39] 2011 Chinese UAI in the last 3 months MSM (overall), n = 2,692 59.9% (1,434/2,393) 64.9% (194/299)
Grov C. [42] 2012 United States UAI in the last 3 months MSM (overall), n = 477 28.2% (43/152) 20.9% (68/325)
Sanchez et al. [43] 2012 United States UAI with most recent casual male sex partner in the last year MSM (overall), n = 5,224 29.3% (766/2,617) 19.1% (497/2,607)
  1. AI, anal intercourse; UAI, unprotected anal intercourse; OR, odds ratios; CI, confidence interval; HIV-neg, HIV-negative; HIV-pos, HIV-positive; HIV-unk, HIV-unknown.