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Table 5 Changes in cardio-metabolic outcomes from baseline to follow-up (5.5-years) in the physical activity groups

From: Meeting physical activity guidelines is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in black South African women; a 5.5-year follow-up study

  Active Inactive p values
  n Baseline Follow-up n Baseline Follow-up Age-adjusted Age- and weight-adjusted
Resting blood pressure       Time Group Interaction Time Group Interaction
SBP (mmHg) 35 112 ± 14 110 ± 17 22 113 ± 13 115 ± 19 0.135 0.831 0.479 0.483 0.990 0.446
DBP (mmHg) 35 79 ± 8a 73 ± 13a 22 79 ± 7 81 ± 9 0.081 0.276 0.039 0398 0.288 0.035
Lipid profile             
TC (mmol/L) 35 3.8 ± 0.9 4.1 ± 0.9 22 3.6 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.9 0.384 0.296 0.870 0.198 0.380 0.733
LDL-C (mmol/L) 35 2.3 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.9 22 2.0 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.8 0.661 0.210 0.244 0.334 0.309 0.185
HDL-C (mmol/L) 35 1.1 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 22 1.0 ± 0.4b 1.2 ± 0.3b 0.004 0.918 0.165 0.067 0.965 0.194
TG (mmol/L) 35 0.7 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.4 22 0.7 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.307 0.581 0.827 0.279 0.361 0.918
TC/HDL-C 35 3.6 ± 1.4 3.5 ± 1.0 22 3.3 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.9 0.441 0.910 0.110 0.919 0.670 0.152
Insulin sensitivity             
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 35 4.5 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 1.7 22 4.6 ± 0.7 5.1 ± 0.8 0.849 0.654 0.821 0.402 0.720 0.402
Fasting serum insulin (mU/L) 35 14.0 ± 7.8a 12.4 ± 6.0b 22 17.8 ± 11.0a 16.4 ± 10.5b 0.125 0.020 0.707 0.655 0.045 0.408
HOMA-IR 34 3.1 ± 1.7a 2.8 ± 1.5b 21 3.7 ± 2.7a 3.7 ± 2.1b 0.145 0.036 0.904 0.950 0.081 0.664
  1. Values are unadjusted mean ± standard deviation. Matching superscript letters represent significant difference (p < 0.05) between age- and weight-adjusted values, based on Tukey post-hoc analyses. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; TC/HDL-C, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; HOMA-IR, homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance; Matsuda index, measure of insulin sensitivity [35].