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Table 3 Differences in baseline cardio-metabolic outcomes between the physical activity groups

From: Meeting physical activity guidelines is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in black South African women; a 5.5-year follow-up study

  n Active n Inactive Optimal range p values
Resting blood pressure       Age-adjusted Age-& weight-adjusted
SBP (mmHg) 141 109.6 ± 16.6 90 111.3 ± 14.0 100 - 140 0.682 0.389
DBP (mmHg) 141 74.0 ± 11.9 90 76.0 ± 9.9 70 - 90 0.797 0.275
Lipid profile        
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 135 3.9 ± 0.8 86 4.1 ± 0.9 3.1 - 5.2 0.711 0.240
LDL-C (mmol/L) 135 2.2 ± 0.7 86 2.3 ± 0.8 1.0 - 3.0 0.307 0.373
HDL-C (mmol/L) 135 1.3 ± 0.4 86 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 - 1.7 0.041 0.409
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 135 0.7 ± 0.3 86 0.8 ± 0.4 0.5 - 2.0 0.229 0.925
TC/HDL-C 135 3.5 ± 3.8 86 3.7 ± 3.7 - 0.870 0.815
Insulin sensitivity        
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 136 4.5 ± 0.4 85 4.4 ± 0.5 3.1 - 5.5 0.673 0.626
Fasting serum insulin (mU/L) 138 10.1 ± 6.8 89 12.4 ± 8.7 - 0.010 0.353
HOMA-IR 129 2.1 ± 1.4 84 2.6 ± 2.0 - 0.010 0.332
  1. Values are unadjusted mean ± standard deviation. SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC/HDL-C, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; HOMA-IR, homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance [32]. Normal range values highlighted according to the WHO/International Society for Hypertension (ISH) statement for the management of hypertension [33] and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria (2001) [34].