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Table 2 Frequency of studies addressing communication and preparedness outcomes

From: What have we learned about communication inequalities during the H1N1 pandemic: a systematic review of the literature

Communication outcomes Definition Frequency (%) Examples
Information sources and exposure The incidental exposure of information of a public health threat, which is not actively looked for by the audience, but obtained through daily routine or from the surrounding. (46) 50% Information about government’s social distancing recommendations learned from routine television watching.
Information seeking behaviors The actions people take proactively to search for information about public health threats for self-protection and survival. (10) 11% Browsed website and/or call doctors to get info about vaccine against H1N1.
Trust and credibility Trust and credibility in the information sources, quality of the information received, fairness of treatment, or government’s ability to respond to a public health emergency. (29) 32% Trust in commercial television or health department as information source about H1N1 vaccines.
Information processing Ability to understand information about public health threats for self-protection and survival. (3) 3% Some subgroups in society were more vulnerable during pandemics because they had difficulty in understanding preventive measures.
Information utilization Ability and/or willingness to use information obtained to prepare for and respond to public health threats. (11) 12% Compliance with hygienic practices during pandemics.
Preparedness outcomes Definition Frequency (%) Examples
Knowledge/awareness Knowledge about specific threats and preventive behaviors. 49 (53%) Individuals with knowledge of a particular mode of transmission for H1N1.
Risk perception Subjective judgment about the characteristics and severity of personal or societal risk. 64 (70%) The risk of being infected with the H1N1 virus.
Preventive behaviors Any activity undertaken by individuals to prevent a disease or limit contagion to other people. 64 (70%) Compliance with the hygienic practices, immunization practices.
Healthcare behaviors Any activity undertaken by individuals to seek medical attention after they encounter the threat. 24 (26%) Seeking health care, compliance with recommended medications (i.e. antivirals).
Emotional response Emotional reactions that occur as a response to a real risk or potential threat to health or environment. 43 (47%) Fear, worry, anxiety, hopelessness or anger.