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Table 3 Anthropometric and exercise characteristics of men (488) and women (519) according to tertile of heart rate recovery

From: Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study

  Men (n = 488) Women (n = 519)
High CRF (53 – 82 bpm) Moderate CRF (83 – 93 bpm) Low CRF (94 – 137 bpm) pValue High CRF (65 – 86 bpm) Moderate CRF (87 – 97 bpm) Low CRF (98 – 133 bpm) pValue
No. of participants 163 162 163   176 169 174  
Anthropometric         
 Age (years) 52.56 ± 14.04 51.49 ± 13.70 49.26 ± 13.95 0.092 54.74 ± 12.95 48.31 ± 13.45* 45.48 ± 12.46* < 0.001
 Height (cm) 169.62 ± 5.50 170.16 ± 5.50 170.75 ± 5.54 0.182 158.15 ± 8.54 158.14 ± 5.17 158.11 ± 8.90 1.000
 Weight (kg) 70.29 ± 8.54 72.53 ± 11.82 71.54 ± 9.31 0.121 56.42 ± 13.68 57.86 ± 8.29 59.18 ± 14.27 0.377
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.41 ± 2.50 24.82 ± 2.70 24.61 ± 2.85 0.391 22.62 ± 5.05 23.15 ± 3.06 23.62 ± 5.26 0.362
 Waist circumference (cm) 83.45 ± 6.80 84.90 ± 7.02 84.97 ± 7.31 0.089 72.71 ± 12.02 74.08 ± 7.28 75.58 ± 12.52 0.242
Blood pressure         
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125.18 ± 12.38 124.07 ± 11.46 125.99 ± 12.80 0.368 119.69 ± 21.63 119.24 ± 13.13 122.73 ± 22.56 0.347
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.50 ± 8.93 77.19 ± 8.44 79.05 ± 8.93* 0.026 72.28 ± 15.25 71.13 ± 9.26 73.74 ± 15.91 0.287
Blood variables         
Glucose (mg/dl) 100.40 ± 16.53 102.20 ± 20.95 110.36 ± 31.99*# < 0.001 94.17 ± 23.94 94.65 ± 14.51 96.95 ± 24.97 0.601
 Hemoglobin A1C (mg/dl) 5.67 ± 0.68 5.66 ± 0.75 5.68 ± 0.70 0.982 5.68 ± 1.25 5.61 ± 0.75 5.71 ± 1.29 0.409
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 192.33 ± 33.54 192.99 ± 32.85 192.08 ± 33.16 0.968 182.75 ± 55.09 192.22 ± 33.40 195.47 ± 57.47. 0.136
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) 140.04 ± 85.72 162.97 ± 109.63 158.89 ± 89.58 0.086 103.56 ± 105.30 113.94 ± 63.74 107.88 ± 109.82 0.402
 Low-density lipoprotein (mg/dl) 120.46 ± 29.70 117.53 ± 30.09 121.36 ± 29.47 0.492 113.03 ± 50.81 123.42 ± 30.81* 125.15 ± 53.01 0.061
High-density lipoprotein (mg/dl) 48.23 ± 13.02 44.25 ± 8.93* 44.47 ± 9.58* 0.001 54.47 ± 20.27 53.67 ± 12.27 52.83 ± 21.14 0.851
No. of participants with MS 26 (23.6) 39 (35.5) 45 (40.9)* 0.035 39 (22.4) 37 (21.9) 43 (24.9) 0.392
 Odd ratio (95% confidence interval) 1 (reference) 1.78 (1.01-3.15) 2.40 (1.37-4.22)   1 (reference) 1.36 (0.79-2.34) 1.99 (1.12-3.34)  
  1. Data are presented as means ± SD or N (%).
  2. All men and women participants were divided into three groups according to tertile of Heart Rate Recovery, respectively.
  3. One-way ANOVA was used to compare means of parameters between three groups in men. Post-hoc analysis: Scheffe.
  4. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare means of parameters between three groups of women after age was controlled for. Post-hoc analysis: Bonferroni.
  5. *significantly different between low CRF and middle CRF or significantly different between low CRF and high CRF; #significantly different between middle CRH and high CRF.
  6. Abbreviations: HRR Heart rate recovery, CRF Cardiorespiratory fitness.