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Table 4 Multivariate adjusted linear regression: change in carer negative affect (n = 159) and change in carer risk of depression (n = 133) between baseline and follow-up

From: Impact of housing improvement and the socio-physical environment on the mental health of children’s carers: a cohort study in Australian Aboriginal communities

Explanatory variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
∆ Negative affect1 β(95% CI) ∆ Negative affect1 β(95% CI) ∆ Risk of depression2 β(95% CI)
Community ID    
1 ni -0.28 (-1.13, 0.58) ns
2 ni -0.74 (-1.52, 0.03) ns
3 ni 0.17 (-0.50, 0.84) ns
4 ni 0.81 (-0.31, 1.92) ns
5 ni 1.78 (1.00, 2.56) ns
6 ni -0.15 (-1.13, 0.84) ns
7 ni -0.82 (-1.65, 0.01) ns
8 (median change in negative affect) ni 0.0 ns
9 ni 0.35 (-1.06, 1.77) ns
10 ni 1.26 (-0.21, 2.72) ns
Carer age at baseline    
<20 yrs ns ns -9.70 (-15.58, -3.83)
20-34 yrs ns ns 0.0
35 + yrs ns ns 0.76 (-2.28, 3.80)
Change in carer ran out of money last year    
Other 0.0 ns ns
From had money to ran out of money last year -0.62 (-1.18, -0.05) ns ns
Change in child day care attendance    
No change ns ns 0.0
Change from No to Yes ns ns -4.03 (-6.37, -1.68)
Change from Yes to No ns ns -1.66 (-9.55, 6.23)
∆ in number of people carer could get help from not in house    
Other 0.0 0.0 ns
From none to able to get help from one or more 0.86 (0.26, 1.45) 0.65 (0.05, 1.26) ns
Change in carer’s has clan/kin in community    
Other ns ns 0.0
Had clan/kin in community to did not ns ns -3.55 (-5.46, -1.64)
NLES: ∆ in knowing someone who had a serious accident    
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0
From yes to no 1.18 (0.59, 1.78) 0.98 (0.48, 1.47) 9.38 (3.44, 15.31)
NLES: ∆ in knowing someone sent to jail    
Other 0.0 ns ns
From yes to no 1.13 (0.53, 1.73) ns ns
Adjusted R 2 22.6% 35.1% 22.1%
  1. 1 Carer Negative affect balance (range: -4 to 4); 2 Carer Risk of depression (range: -30 to 30).
  2. A positive Beta coefficient indicates the variable is associated with an improvement in mental health. Bold font indicates the variable was significant at p ≤ 0.05; ni – not applicable; ns – not significant.