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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics and baseline and follow-up values of dietary habits and PA for intervention and control groups

From: Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design

Baseline comparability
  Intervention group (n = 146) Control group (n = 268) X2or t (p)   
Age (years) 12.57 ± 1.02 12.08 ± 1.58 3.61 (***)   
Employment status father (% employed) 88% 84% 0.86 (ns)   
Employment status mother (% employed) 44% 62% 9.86 (**)   
Intervention effects
  Intervention group (n = 101) Control group (n = 224) Time by condition F (p)
  Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up  
Healthy diet
Attitude breakfast consumption (scale 1-5) 4.17 ± 0.98 4.11 ± 1.15 4.20 ± 0.87 4.37 ± 0.87 2.37 (ns)
Self-efficacy breakfast consumption (scale 1-5) 3.51 ± 1.01 4.17 ± 0.98 3.59 ± 1.09 3.61 ± 1.03 9.20 (**)
Breakfast consumption (days/week) 4.91 ± 2.30 4.96 ± 2.32 6.20 ± 1.67 6.23 ± 1.66 0.48 (ns)
Attitude vegetable consumption (scale 1-5) 3.60 ± 0.99 4.32 ± 0.85 3.49 ± 1.27 3.37 ± 1.37 8.84 (**)
Vegetable consumption (times/week) 3.32 ± 2.12 4.85 ± 2.26 4.06 ± 2.18 4.49 ± 2.08 3.25 (#)
Attitude fruit consumption (scale 1-5) 4.15 ± 1.06 4.28 ± 0.84 3.96 ± 0.92 4.17 ± 0.83 1.01 (ns)
Fruit consumption (times/week) 4.49 ± 2.46 4.28 ± 2.56 4.69 ± 2.44 4.21 ± 2.41 0.42 (ns)
Attitude soft drink consumption (scale 1-5) 2.17 ± 1.05 4.08 ± 1.03 2.49 ± 1.05 2.45 ± 1.28 32.61 (***)
Soft drink consumption (times/week) 4.42 ± 2.25 4.77 ± 2.54 3.22 ± 2.38 3.42 ± 2.46 1.55 (ns)
Attitude water consumption (scale 1-5) 2.66 ± 1.56 2.70 ± 1.58 2.93 ± 1.19 2.93 ± 1.37 0.26 (ns)
Water consumption (glasses/day) 2.47 ± 1.45 3.17 ± 1.34 2.85 ± 1.33 2.79 ± 1.30 2.94 (#)
Attitude sweet and savoury snack consumption (scale 1-5) 3.26 ± 1.33 3.58 ± 1.29 3.10 ± 1.11 2.85 ± 1.25 1.06 (ns)
Sweet and savoury snack consumption (mean pieces/week) 1.32 ± 0.91 1.25 ± 1.04 0.78 ± 0.89 0.76 ± 0.90 0.03 (ns)
Physical activity
Attitude physical activity (scale 1-5) 4.48 ± 0.97 4.81 ± 0.39 4.96 ± 0.20 4.89 ± 0.36 0.84 (ns)
Self-efficacy physical activity (scale 1-5) 2.90 ± 1.34 4.15 ± 1.23 3.35 ± 1.33 3.30 ± 1.27 2.86 (#)
Sports participation (mean minutes/week) 158.02 ± 77.86 165.73 ± 72.95 167.82 ± 67.45 170.99 ± 67.90 1.36 (ns)
Active transport (minutes/week) 52.71 ± 66.61 66.08 ± 103.64 70.14 ± 76.63 80.76 ± 90.55 0.16 (ns)
  1. Values are mean ± SD or %, ns = non-significant (p > 0.05). #trend towards significance; *0.01 < p ≤ 0.05; **0.001 < p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.