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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted time ratio (TR) for survival time using Log-Logistic regression analysis, with and without unobserved heterogeneity (“frailty”)

From: Gender differences in mortality and risk factors in a 13-year cohort study of street-recruited injecting drug users

  Model 1: total population Model 2: total population Model 3: womena Model 4: mena
No frailtya Frailtyb
Unadjusted Adjusted Adjusted Adjusted Adjusted
TRc[95% CI] TRc[95% CI] TRc[95% CI] TRc[95% CI] TRc[95% CI]
Male 0.5 [0.2, 1.7] 0.5 [0.1, 1.7] 0.5 [0.1, 1.7] -  
≥ 30 yearsd 0.8 [0.3, 2.1] 0.8 [0.3, 2.3] 0.8 [0.3, 2.3] 0.1 [0.0, 4.5] 1.3 [0.5, 3.6]
> 5 years IV careere 0.8 [0.2, 2.7] 1.1 [0.3, 3.8] 1.1 [0.3, 3.8] 1.0 [0.0, 152.3] 1.1 [0.3, 3.7]
Combined heroin and prescription drugsf, g 0.4 [0.2, 1.1]* 0.4 [0.1, 1.0]* 0.4 [0.1, 1.0]* 0.2 [0.0, 5.3] 0.5 [0.2, 1.2]
Alcohol ≥2 days a weekg 0.8 [0.3, 2.3] 0.8 [0.3, 2.4] 0.8 [0.3, 2.4] 0.3 [0.0, 11.8] 0.8 [0.3, 2.3]
Sex workg 0.4 [0.1, 1.7] - - 0.02 [0.00, 1.8]* -
n 171 171 171 43 128
Gamma - 1.4 [1.0, 1.8] 1.4 [1.0, 1.8] 1.8 [1.0, 3.4] 1.2 [0.9, 1.6]
Theta - - 0 - -
Log-Likelihood - -161.7 -161.7 -30.7 -125.2
Akaike’s Info. Crit. - 337.5 339.5 75.4 70.7
Likelihood-ratio test of theta = 0 - - 0.0 p = 1.000 - -
  1. *p < 0.10.
  2. aWithout unobserved heterogeneity.
  3. bWith unobserved heterogeneity.
  4. cTime ratio for covariate k = exp (β*k).
  5. dAt inclusion.
  6. e> 5 years between first injection and interview.
  7. fCombined heroin and prescription drugs in injections.
  8. gIn the previous four weeks before the baseline interview.