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Table 5 Health professionals, theories and cultural adaptation of interventions

From: Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature

ID Study Administered by Theories Cultural adaptation
1 Boden-Albala 2010 [44] • Two health educators • Social cognitive theory • Bilingual materials with translation by community health worker
   • 1 physician or nurse • Motivational interviewing • Visuals integrating community places
     • Film footage of community stroke survivors recalling stroke experiences in their own language
     • Integration and instructions for current community resources
     • Conversations about barriers such as mistrust of the health care system
     • A community committee evaluated cultural appropriateness of the intervention
     • Involvement of local stroke support group
2 Chan 2008 [45] • African American actors instructed by Stroke Association • None • Video produced by the American Heart Association, with African-American actors
3 Covington 2010 [46] • Trained college students acting as health champions • Social cognitive theory • Generic mention that the presentations were "culturally sensitive".
    • Stages of change  
4 Dromerick 2011 [47] • Lay community health workers • Theory of reasoned action • Usage of American Heart Association’s tailored educational materials
    • theory of planned behaviour • Provision of tailored health education
    • motivational interviewing  
5 Duraski 2006 [49]; Duraski 2003 [48] • Research nurse • None • Presentation developed for the Hispanic culture
     • Emphasis on risk factors affecting the Hispanic community
     • Information was not literally translated to Spanish".
     • Verbal/written educational materials in Spanish about stroke warning signs/symptoms
     • Focus groups with communities to ensure appropriateness of presentation
6 Duraski 2007 [50] • Research nurse • None • Option to have focus groups in Spanish or English
     • Culturally sensitive information, not simply translated from English to Spanish
7 Frank 2008 [51] Nurse researchers • None • No
   • Nursing students   
8 Kalenderian 2009 [53] Trained ambassadors • None • No
9 Kleindorfer 2008 [54] • None • No
10 Miller 2003 [55] • Neuroscience nurses • Stages of change • No
    • Motivational interviewing  
11 Morgenstern 2007 [56]; Gonzales 2007 [52]; Mullen Conley 2010 [59] • Educator • Social cognitive theory • Culturally sensitive strategy developed through a focus group with parents, students and teachers."
   • Stroke neurologist   
   • Data manager   • Aspects of Mexican-American culture included inclusion of Mexican American health professionals in design
   • Science/health teachers   
   • KIDS project health professionals   • Focus groups with local students, parents and teachers;.bilingual materials
12 Villablanca 2009 [57] • Site leaders • Stages of change • Culturally appropriate health education curriculum and materials
   • Cardiologists   
   • Endocrinologists
   • Nurses
   • Dietitians
   • Physical exercise and other health professionals"
13 Williams 2008 [58] • Two stroke education professionals • None • Rap and hip-hop
   • 2 community health professionals   
14 Williams 2012 [59] • Children administered the intervention • Theory of reasoned action • Rap and hip-hop (songs and dance)
    • Social cognitive theory (self-efficacy)  
15 Williamson 2009 [60] • Nurses • None • No
   • Nursing students