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Table 2 Themes and contributing factors identified

From: Using participatory epidemiology to assess factors contributing to common enteric pathogens in Ontario: results from a workshop held at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario

  Themes and contributing factors identified during interviews and focus groups
Category Key theme Contributing factor
Knowledge and process Public health experience ▪ How public health experience influences enteric illness investigations (e.g. methodology, education)
Access to healthcare ▪ Influential factors that affect the availability of healthcare (e.g. remote location, language barrier, under-reporting)
Risk factors Travel International travel and domestic travel
Food handling Food handler
Cross contamination
Temperature control, undercooked food and time in storage
▪ Food choices: fresh produce, raw milk, deli meats, soft cheeses, sea food
Industry ▪ The farm-to-fork continuum: all production stages of food (i.e. slaughter, processing, packaging, retail)
Water ▪ Recreational activities: swimming, camping, canoeing, hiking
▪ Drinking contaminated surface water or well water
Geography Climate and seasonality
▪ Spatial factors: urban versus rural, postal code
Susceptibility factors Demographics ▪ Biological factors: age, gender, immune-compromised, co-morbidity
▪ Work and home environment factors: occupation, socio-economic status, living conditions, education, university residence, daycare, long-term care facility
Behaviours Mass gatherings
Person-to-person (e.g. MSM)
Culture: defined as shared experiences, values, and traditions
Ethnicity: defined as country of origin
Rituals/traditions: food handling practices passed down from generations
▪ Animal contact: petting zoos/farms, domestic pets, wildlife reserves
▪ Food preferences: cultural foods, traditional foods (e.g. aboriginal hunting), smoked foods
Personal hygiene practices (e.g. hand-washing)
  1. This table provides a summary of the key themes discussed during the case study. The themes were categorized according to knowledge and process, risk factors, and susceptibility factors. Within these themes, a total of 50 contributing factors (in bold) were identified by informants.