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Table 1 Input parameters for decision-analytic model and corresponding sources

From: Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model

Parameter Value (Base Case) Source(s)
Population meeting fiber recommendations   
  Adult, male 3% USDA, 2010 [2]
  Adult, female 6% USDA, 2010 [2]
  Pediatric, male 3% USDA, 2010 [2]
  Pediatric, female 3% USDA, 2010 [2]
Population with constipation   
  Adult, male 4.6% Stewart et al., 1999 [22]
  Adult, female 4.6% Stewart et al., 1999 [22]
  Pediatric, male 4.6% Based on Stewart et al., 1999 [22]
  Pediatric, female 4.6% Based on Stewart et al., 1999 [22]
Percent of population expected to respond to fibera 85% Voderholzer et al. 1997 [30]
Percent reduction in constipation associated with each 1 g/day increase in fiber intake 1.9% Dukas et al. 2003 [18]
Constipation severity   
  Adults 75% require prescription Assumption
  Pediatric 100% require prescription Assumption
Annual cost   
  Adult, prescription $10,786.15 Mean of Mitra et al., 2011 [31] and Nyrop et al. 2007 [32], inflated to 2012
  Adult, OTC $566.54 Nyrop et al. 2007 [32], inflated to 2012
  Pediatric, prescription $3032.97 Liem et al., 2009 [33], inflated to 2012
Change in fiber intake Increase of 9 g daily Assumptionb
  1. Abbreviations: USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture, OTC over-the-counter.
  2. aRespond to fiber = alleviation of constipation.
  3. bAssumed value of 9 g/day corresponds to the difference between the lower limit of the fiber recommendation established by the IOM (25 g/day) and the current mean intake in the population (16 g/day).