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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants by BMI classes

From: Correlates of perceived health related quality of life in obese, overweight and normal weight older adults: an observational study

  Normal weight Overweight Obesity p-value
n = 86 n = 53 n = 66
Age (years) 69.02 ± 6.61 69.46 ± 5.69 67.76 ± 6.59 0.304
Gender     0.627
 Male 25.6% 22.6% 30.3%  
 Female 74.4% 77.4% 69.7%  
Waist circumference (cm) 82.99 ± 9.32 92.69 ± 8.36a 111.22 ± 12.47ab <0.001
Hip circumference (cm) 97.16 ± 6.49 106.17 ± 6.48a 118.85 ± 12.15ab <0.001
Number of medications prescribed 2.09 ± 1.85 2.36 ± 1.6 2.63 ± 1.97 0.198
Number of diseases 1.76 ± 1.39 1.77 ± 1 2.22 ± 1.58 0.089
Cardiovascolar diseases (yes) 44.2% 60.8% 66.7% 0.015
Endocrine and metabolic diseases (yes) 67.4% 78.4% 74.2% 0.350
Neurological and psychiatric diseases (yes) 2.3% 3.9% 6.1% 0.503
Gastrointestinal diseases (yes) 3.5% 2.0% 6.1% 0.507
Smoking habits     0.603
 Not smoker 83.7% 86.8% 77.3%  
 Ex-smoker 10.5% 5.7% 13.6%  
 Smoker 5.8% 7.5% 9.1%  
Marital status     0.165
 Single 4.9% 0.0% 4.7%  
 Married 80.5% 86.3% 68.8%  
 Divorced/separated 4.9% 3.9% 3.1%  
 Widowed 9.8% 9.8% 23.4%  
Living alone (yes) 11.0% 9.8% 23.1% 0.063
Level of education     0.450
 No education 1.2% 0.0% 3.1%  
 Primary 54.9% 68.6% 64.6%  
 Secondary 32.9% 25.5% 21.5%  
 Tertiary 11.0% 5.9% 10.8%  
PASE (total score) 111.91 ± 50.39 114.94 ± 46.1 102.3 ± 55.37 0.218
Self-evaluation of health status     0.044
 Excellent/very good 8.5% 6.0% 1.6%  
 Good 43.9% 36.0% 26.6%  
 Fair/poor 47.6% 58.0% 71.9%  
SF-36 Physical functioning 73.66 ± 27.76 68.1 ± 21.73 56.41 ± 26.75a <0.001
SF-36 Role-physical 64.51 ± 39.9 49.0 ± 41.33 48.05 ± 42.56 0.053
SF-36 Bodily pain 63.17 ± 24.18 50.64 ± 25.37c 49.12 ± 23.39d 0.001
SF-36 General health 54.83 ± 19.15 48.96 ± 20.93 45.25 ± 18.64c 0.013
SF-36 Vitality 55.71 ± 17.53 50.40 ± 23.88 47.38 ± 18.07c 0.036
SF-36 Social functioning 70.43 ± 20.37 66.50 ± 28.06 62.69 ± 22.48 0.135
SF-36 Role-emotional 71.54 ± 37.81 65.33 ± 42.57 54.69 ± 42.98c 0.048
SF-36 Mental health 63.0 ± 16.23 62.40 ± 22.74 57.90 ± 19.30 0.248
SF-36 Physical component summary PCS-36 44.57 ± 10.75 39.75 ± 8.96c 38.19 ± 9.07a <0.001
SF-36 Mental component summary- MCS-36 45.86 ± 9.03 45.33 ± 12.78 43.28 ± 10.13 0.321
LUBBEN SCALE (total score) 31.83 ± 9.08 33.16 ± 9.51 31.09 ± 10.62 0.520
HADS anxiety (total score) 6.34 ± 3.52 6.37 ± 4.05 7.22 ± 3.32 0.283
HADS depression (total score) 6.68 ± 3.7 7.45 ± 4.39 7.73 ± 3.85 0.265
  1. `Note: Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation; categorical data as percentage. Chi-square test or one-way ANOVA as appropriate; Bonferroni post-hoc test following ANOVA:
  2. ap < 0.001 vs Normal weight.
  3. bp < 0.001 vs Overweight.
  4. cp < 0.05 vs Normal weight.
  5. dp < 0.01 vs Normal weight.
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