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Table 1 Distribution of body mass index among children participating in the current study

From: Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors for child’s physical growth and adiposity rebound of Japanese children: a longitudinal study of the 21st century longitudinal survey in newborns

  WHO standard*
Boy (%) Girl (%)
  1 ½ years 2 ½ years 3 ½ years 4 ½ years 5 ½ years 1 ½ years 2 ½ years 3 ½ years 4 ½ years 5 ½ years
99 percentile- 1.9 2.6 2.0 1.8 2.4 1.6 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.3
95 percentile - 4.8 5.9 4.9 3.7 3.2 4.7 5.6 3.9 3.1 2.5
85 percentile - 12.9 13.6 12.5 9.3 8.5 11.7 14.3 11.6 8.1 7.4
75 percentile - 12.0 11.2 12.6 11.3 9.5 10.9 12.3 11.5 11.0 9.5
50 percentile - 26.2 28.7 28.0 29.0 27.2 28.9 24.9 31.7 28.9 27.9
25 percentile - 22.6 19.9 22.9 28.2 26.8 25.2 24.1 22.7 29.9 29.0
< 25 percentile 19.5 18.2 17.1 16.8 22.4 17.1 17.0 17.3 18.0 22.5
  IOTF standard   
  Boy (%) Girl (%)
  2 ½ years 3 ½ years 4 ½ years 5 ½ years 2 ½ years 3 ½ years 4 ½ years 5 ½ years   
Obesity 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.6   
Overweight 7.2 5.9 5.0 5.1 8.5 7.2 7.6 7.5   
  1. *The WHO defines two different standards for younger children (0–5 years) and older children and adolescent (5 years -). We applied “WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents” for the Japanese children age at 5 ½ years, and “WHO child growth standards based on length/height, weight and age” for those at the rest of the ages [19, 21].
  2. †The IOTF standard provides equivalent BMI cutoff values, 25 kg/m2 for overweight and 30 kg/m2 for obesity, at the age of 18 years for both boys and girls [10].
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