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Table 3 Differences by time a in food intakes according to gender estimated using mean polish process b

From: Descriptive epidemiological study of food intake among Japanese adults: analyses by age, time and birth cohort model

   Men Women
Time (year)   1989 1999 2009 1989 1999 2009
Ricec (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -4.7 2.1 0.0 -9.9 -7.2
Wheat (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -9.9 0.6 0.0 -1.1 9.5
Potatoes (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 12.7 9.1 0.0 8.0 1.2
Green yellow vegetables (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 15.0 12.4 0.0 3.3 6.4
Other vegetables (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 19.7 13.8 0.0 -1.3 -8.3
Fruits (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 4.7 0.0 0.0 -15.5 -20.8
Milk, Dairy products (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -10.5 -16.2 0.0 -1.3 -8.3
Meat (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 9.4 17.6 0.0 7.4 14.0
Fish (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 8.2 -3.7 0.0 5.1 -5.9
Egg (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 0.9 -1.7 0.0 -1.6 -2.9
Beans (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 2.5 -6.2 0.0 4.3 -2.5
Confectionery (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 0.9 2.2 0.0 1.8 3.2
Sugar (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -0.3 -1.8 0.0 -1.1 -2.5
Fats and Oils (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -1.2 -3.6 0.0 -0.7 -3.6
  1. Difference by time in food intakes according to gender are shown using National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 1989, 1999 and 2009.
  2. aMinus symbol "-" means negative values. Positive values indicate greater consumption in the particular period compared to 1989 in all age groups.
  3. bA statistical model symbolically represented by: Rij = ai + tj + c(k) [23] where Rij (food intake) is modeled by the sum of the effects of the ith age group (i = 1 to 5, representing age groups from 20-29 to 60-69) represented by ai, the effects of the jth time period (1989 or 1999 or 2009 survey) represented by tj, and the effects of the kth cohort (birth at 1930-1939, 1940-1949, 1950-1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979) represented by c(k). A c(k) value greater than zero indicates higher than additive influence and less than zero indicates lower than additive influence from age/time effects on food intake.
  4. c Rice intake presented for 2009 was calculated as the half of that reported in 2009 NHNS-J.
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