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Table 3 Bivariate Spearman’s correlations between HRQOL, socio-demographic and health characteristics

From: The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia- a cross sectional study

Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1. Age 1.000         
2. Gender −0.123* 1.000        
3. Income −0.193** −0.211** 1.000       
4. Smoking −0.012 −0.513** 0.178** 1.000      
5. No of co-morbidities 0.181** −0.066 0.009 0.044 1.000     
6. BMI −0.269** 0.179** 0.003 −0.055 0.036 1.000    
7. PA 0.201** 0.034 −0.100 −0.080 0.021 −0.283** 1.000   
8. PCS 0.028 −0.107 0.170** 0.079 0.031 −0.374** 0.123* 1.000  
9. MCS 0.051 −0.024 0.148* −0.006 0.055 −0.081 0.001 0.545** 1.000
  1. Notes: significance correlation at *p < 0.05 level and **p < 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  2. PA: Physical activity in total MET-minutes/week, BMI: Body mass index in kg/m2, No of co-morbidities range from 0 (i.e., no reported co-morbidities) to 3 (i.e., all 3 co-morbidities were present), PCS: Physical Component Summary scores, MCS: Mental Component Summary scores.
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