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Table 7 Average costs and cost breakdown for the first year on antiretroviral therapy

From: Retention in care, resource utilization, and costs for adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort study

  Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Site 6 All patients at all sitesd
Average cost, 2011 USD (95% CI)
Average cost per patient for total sample 151 (137–165) 185 (168–202) 166 (154–179) 209 (192–225) 251 (229–273) 242 (224–260) 198 (157–239)
Average cost per patient for subset of sample retained in care one year after initiating ART 184 (172–195) 245 (235–254) 205 (198–212) 247 (233–261) 304 (290–319) 296 (285–307) 243 (194–293)
Breakdown of average cost per patient for subset of sample remaining in care one year after initiating ART, 2011 USD (% of total)
ARV drugsa 123 (67) 166 (68) 148 (72) 207 (84) 116 (38) 178 (60) 159 (66)
Non-ARV drugsa 12 (6) 20 (8) 4 (2) 5 (2) 0 (0) 22 (7) 11 (5)
Laboratory tests 11 (6) 18 (7) 27 (13) 11 (5) 49 (16) 23 (8) 22 (9)
Clinic visitsb 26 (14) 27 (11) 11 (5) 17 (7) 67 (22) 33 (11) 28 (11)
Fixed resourcesc 12 (6) 14 (6) 15 (7) 7 (3) 72 (24) 39 (13) 24 (9)
Total 184 (100) 245 (100) 205 (100) 247 (100) 304 (100) 296 (100) 243 (100)
  1. ART: antiretroviral therapy; ARV: antiretroviral; CI: confidence interval; USD: United States Dollar.
  2. aUnit costs for ARV and non-ARV drugs were standardized across all sites so variation in total ARV and non-ARV drug costs between sites are due to differences in utilization.
  3. bClinic visits include the cost of staff time for staff who see patients.
  4. cFixed costs include the cost of buildings and infrastructure, equipment, supplies, vehicles, and staff time for staff employed in the ART clinic who do not see patients.
  5. dBecause the sample size varied by site, the average cost for all patients at all sites is slightly different than the average cost for all sites.