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Table 5 Average quantity of resources utilized per patient during the first year on antiretroviral therapy

From: Retention in care, resource utilization, and costs for adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort study

Resource Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Site 6 All sites
Quantity of resources utilized per patient for total sample
ARV drugs, number of patient-months        
NRTI combinations        
TDF 300 mg + FTC 200 mg 3.7 7.6 7.3 1.3 4.1 8.8 5.6
AZT 300 mg + 3TC 150 mg 2.6 0.0 0.8 0.5 2.2 1.0 1.1
ABC 300 mg + 3TC 150 mg 0.1 0.9 0.0 6.4 0.0 0.1 1.3
d4T 30 mg + 3TC 150 mg 2.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 1.4 1.1 1.1
Any NRTI combination 8.9 9.1 8.8 8.7 7.8 11.1 9.1
NNRTI or PI        
NVP 200 mg 6.4 7.7 4.0 2.5 3.7 4.0 4.8
EFV 600 mg 2.2 1.5 4.5 6.2 4.0 6.8 4.2
LPV/r 200/50 mg 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Any NNRTI or PI 8.8 9.2 8.5 8.6 7.7 10.8 9.0
Non-ARV drugs, number of patient-monthsa        
Co-trimoxazole 400/80 mg 6.4 8.8 1.3 3.2 0.2 9.8 5.2
Laboratory tests, number of testsb        
CD4 test 1.5 1.3 1.4 0.5 1.5 1.2 1.2
Blood chemistry testc 0.2 1.9 1.0 0.3 1.0 2.2 1.1
Full blood countd 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.4 2.0 1.3 1.2
Clinic visits with each type of provider, number of visitse        
Doctor or clinical officer 5.0 5.3 5.3 3.4 6.6 7.4 5.4
Nurse 7.4 6.8 5.4 4.2 6.6 7.4 6.3
Counselor 9.2 9.2 6.1 7.6 6.6 6.6 7.6
Pharmacist 9.5 10.0 6.1 7.2 6.6 7.3 7.9
Fixed resources, number of patient-monthsf 9.9 9.3 9.6 10.1 9.6 9.8 9.7
Quantity of resources utilized per patient for subset of sample retained in care one year after initiating ART
ARV drugs, number of patient-months        
NRTI combinations        
TDF 300 mg + FTC 200 mg 4.3 10.2 9.3 1.6 5.1 10.8 6.9
AZT 300 mg + 3TC 150 mg 3.3 0.0 1.0 0.6 2.9 1.3 1.5
ABC 300 mg + 3TC 150 mg 0.1 1.2 0.0 7.6 0.0 0.1 1.6
d4T 30 mg + 3TC 150 mg 3.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 1.7 1.4 1.4
Any NRTI combination 10.9 12.2 11.1 10.4 9.6 13.6 11.4
NNRTI or PI        
NVP 200 mg 7.9 10.3 5.1 2.9 4.6 5.1 6.0
EFV 600 mg 2.6 2.0 5.6 7.4 5.0 8.1 5.2
LPV/r 200/50 mg 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Any NNRTI or PI 10.7 12.3 10.7 10.2 9.6 13.2 11.2
Non-ARV drugs, number of patient-monthsa        
Co-trimoxazole 7.9 11.8 1.6 3.8 0.3 12.1 6.5
Laboratory tests, number of testsb        
CD4 test 1.8 1.9 1.6 0.6 1.7 1.5 1.5
Blood chemistry testc 0.1 2.5 1.0 0.3 1.0 2.6 1.3
Full blood countd 1.6 1.6 1.0 0.5 2.2 1.6 1.4
Clinic visits with each type of provider, number of visitse        
Doctor or clinical officer 5.9 6.6 6.4 3.8 8.0 8.7 6.5
Nurse 8.8 8.6 6.5 4.8 8.0 8.7 7.5
Counselor 11.1 11.9 7.4 8.9 8.0 7.8 9.2
Pharmacist 11.4 13.0 7.4 8.5 8.0 8.6 9.5
Fixed resources, number of patient-monthsf 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
  1. 3TC: lamivudine; ABC: abacavir; ART: antiretroviral therapy; ARV: antiretroviral; AZT: zidovudine; d4T: stavudine; EFV: efavirenz; FTC: emtricitabine; LPV/r: ritonavir-boosted lopinavir; NNRTI: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NVP: nevirapine; PI: protease inhibitor; TDF: tenofovir.
  2. aPatients in our sample received other non-ARV drugs in addition to co-trimoxazole. These included, but were not limited to: multivitamins, folic acid supplements, ferrous sulfate supplements, paracetamol, fluconazole, ibuprofen, and amoxicillin.
  3. bIn addition to CD4 tests, blood chemistry tests, and full blood counts, patients in our sample also received <0.1 on average of each of the following lab tests during the first year on ART: acid-fast bacillus, hepatitis B test, malaria test, pregnancy test, rapid plasma reagin test, and viral load test.
  4. cA blood chemistry test could include any combination of the following tests: creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and urea.
  5. dA full blood count includes hemoglobin and a white blood count, among other counts.
  6. eA single clinic visit for patients in our sample could include a consultation with more than one type of provider (doctor or clinical officer, nurse, counselor, or pharmacist).
  7. fFixed resources included buildings and infrastructure, equipment, supplies, vehicles, and staff time for staff employed in the ART clinic who do not see patients.