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Table 3 Association between minimum percentage green space thresholds and neighbourhood socioeconomic circumstances, adjusting for city and population density: binary logit regression with robust standard errors

From: Do low-income neighbourhoods have the least green space? A cross-sectional study of Australia’s most populous cities

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
% green space cut-point for the outcome variable ≥10% ≥20% ≥40%
City (ref: Sydney)    
  Melbourne 0.48 (0.39, 0.59)*** 0.49 (0.39, 0.62)*** 0.45 (0.30, 0.67)***
  Brisbane 0.75 (0.60, 0.94)* 0.68 (0.53, 0.87)** 0.47 (0.29, 0.74)***
  Perth 0.96 (0.75, 1.24) 0.95 (0.74, 1.22) 0.72 (0.47, 1.09)
  Adelaide 0.53 (0.40, 0.72)*** 0.61 (0.44, 0.84)** 0.58 (0.32, 1.06)
Population density (logged) 0.82 (0.77, 0.87)*** 0.74 (0.70, 0.78)*** 0.61 (0.57, 0.65)***
Percentage low income householdsa (ref: 0%)    
  1 – 4% 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) 1.00 (0.88, 1.13) 0.85 (0.69, 1.06)
  5 – 9% 0.85 (0.74, 0.97)* 0.76 (0.66, 0.88)*** 0.64 (0.50, 0.81)***
  10 – 19% 0.73 (0.62, 0.85)*** 0.61 (0.51, 0.73)*** 0.35 (0.26, 0.47)***
  20%+ 0.77 (0.63, 0.93)** 0.63 (0.51, 0.79)*** 0.30 (0.20, 0.44)***
  1. alow income household is defined as having a household income < $21,000 in the 2011 Australian census.
  2. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05.