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Table 1 Means and proportions of metabolic outcomes by gender and weight status among children aged 10-19-y-old in South Korea: KNHANES 2007-2008 1

From: Association between obesity and metabolic co-morbidities among children and adolescents in South Korea based on national data

  By gender By weight status2,3,4
  Total Boys Girls Normal weight Overweight Obese
  (n = 1526) (n = 821) (n = 705) (n = 1147) (n = 194) (n = 90)
  Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Anthropometry    
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 20.5 0.1 21.0 0.2 20.0 0.15 19.6 0.1c 24.7 0.1b 28.9 0.4a
 Waist circumference (cm) 70.0 0.3 72.2 0.5 67.3 0.45 67.4 0.3c 80.3 0.6b 90.3 1.5a
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 104.0 0.4 106.5 0.5 101.0 0.45 102.9 0.4c 108.0 0.9b 112.9 1.5a
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 65.4 0.4 66.7 0.5 64.0 0.55 65.0 0.4b 67.6 0.9a 67.6 1.5a
Laboratory tests    
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 90.8 1.9 89.6 2.7 92.1 2.4 82.9 1.7c 119.3 8.4b 142.0 10.6a
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 157.8 0.9 155.5 1.2 160.5 1.15 155.6 1.0c 167.0 2.2b 175.9 3.0a
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 89.9 0.8 88.8 1.1 91.2 1.1 88.5 0.9c 96.2 2.1b 105.2 3.2a
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 49.7 0.5 48.8 0.6 50.8 0.65 50.6 0.6a 47.0 0.9b 42.2 1.4c
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) 89.3 0.4 89.6 0.5 88.8 0.4 89.0 0.3b 91.6 1.3a 89.8 1.0ab
Atherogenic index 7 -0.3 0.0 -0.3 0.0 -0.3 0.0 -0.4 0.0c -0.1 0.1b 0.3 0.2a
Waist-to-height ratio 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.05 0.4 0.0c 0.5 0.0b 0.6 0.0a
  % % % % % %
Obesity status    
 Central obesity, %8 8.1 8.9 7.2 0.9 20.8 77.66
 Overweight and obesity, %2 19.0 21.0 16.7    
Cadiometabolic risk factors    
 Metabolic syndrome, %6 1.9 2.4 1.3 0.0 3.2 24.76
 High blood pressure, %7 17.5 20.0 14.76 15.9 22.6 28.46
 High glucose, %8 6.7 7.1 6.3 6.5 8.0 9.2
 Dyslipidemia, %9 21.2 21.8 20.4 16.2 38.2 55.46
  High triglycerides, %9 10.2 10.0 10.4 6.9 21.5 33.16
  High total cholesterol, %9 6.2 5.6 6.8 5.0 10.8 14.46
  High LDL-cholesterol, %9 5.6 5.2 6.0 4.4 7.8 16.36
  Low HDL-cholesterol, %9 7.9 9.2 6.3 6.1 12.0 23.26
No. of metabolic comorbidities, % 10    
  0 61.4 60.8 62.2 69.2 36.1 8.96
  1 28.4 28.8 27.9 25.2 46.4 30.8
  ≥ 2 10.2 10.4 10.0 5.7 17.5 60.3
  1. Abbreviations: KNHANES Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, LDL-cholesterol Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  2. 1Estimates shown as mean and standard error or %.
  3. 2Defined using 2007 Korea growth chart, Normal weight (5th percentile ≤ BMI < 85th percentile); overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile); obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile).
  4. 3P-trend <0.05 across weight status.
  5. 4Letters with different superscripts by weight status are significantly different at P<0.05 by Tukey’s multiple range test.
  6. 5P < 0.05 for between group comparisons.
  7. 6P < 0.05 for between group comparisons using χ2 tests.
  8. 7Atherogenic index = log (triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol).
  9. 8Definitions of metabolic co-morbidities are provided in Methods.
  10. 9Among elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose based on the 2007 pediatric IDF definition.