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Table 3 Incidence rate ratios (95% CI) predicting depression with social relationships, Swiss health survey, 2007

From: Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study

  Social relationship predictors individually Adjusted for other social relationship variables Further adjusted for sociodemographics Loneliness omitted
  Major depression Depressive symptoms Major depression Depressive symptoms Major depression Depressive symptoms Major depression Depressive symptoms
Loneliness         
 Never Referent - - - - - - -
 Sometimes 3.40 (2.58, 4.48) 1.66 (1.58, 1.73) 2.94 (2.13, 4.05) 1.56 (1.49, 1.64) 2.68 (1.95, 3.68) 1.55 (1.48, 1.63) - -
 Quite or very often 16.4 (12.4, 21.7) 3.12 (2.87, 3.38) 11.0 (7.28, 16.5) 2.58 (2.34, 2.85) 9.97 (6.84, 14.5) 2.39 (2.18, 2.63) - -
 Confidant 0.44 (0.30, 0.65) 0.69 (0.64, 0.74) 0.82 (0.53, 1.27) 0.86 (0.79, 0.93) 0.75 (0.48, 1.18) 0.90 (0.82, 0.98) 0.59 (0.38, 0.92) 0.86 (0.79, 0.94)
 Unmet support 2.74 (2.15, 3.51) 1.56 (1.49, 1.64) 1.41 (1.04, 1.90) 1.27 (1.20, 1.34) 1.40 (1.04, 1.88) 1.28 (1.21, 1.35) 2.11 (1.63, 2.73) 1.47 (1.39, 1.54)
 Tangible support 0.38 (0.28, 0.53) 0.64 (0.60, 0.69) 0.77 (0.53, 1.11) 0.83 (0.77, 0.89) 0.76 (0.52, 1.12) 0.83 (0.77, 0.90) 0.58 (0.40, 0.84) 0.78 (0.72, 0.84)
Social contact         
 0-9 - - - - - - - -
 10-12 0.65 (0.45, 0.94) 0.82 (0.76, 0.89) 0.87 (0.59, 1.29) 0.91 (0.84, 0.98) 0.87 (0.58, 1.29) 0.92 (0.85, 0.99) 0.78 (0.54, 1.13) 0.90 (0.83, 0.98)
 13-14 0.53 (0.37, 0.77) 0.77 (0.72, 0.83) 0.75 (0.50, 1.12) 0.88 (0.81, 0.95) 0.74 (0.48, 1.12) 0.90 (0.83, 0.97) 0.66 (0.44, 0.97) 0.87 (0.80, 0.95)
 15-16 0.38 (0.25, 0.58) 0.70 (0.64, 0.75) 0.56 (0.35, 0.90) 0.81 (0.74, 0.88) 0.56 (0.34, 0.91) 0.83 (0.76, 0.91) 0.50 (0.31, 0.80) 0.81 (0.74, 0.89)
 17-21 0.49 (0.30, 0.78) 0.69 (0.63, 0.75) 0.77 (0.47, 1.27) 0.81 (0.74, 0.88) 0.76 (0.45, 1.28) 0.81 (0.74, 0.89) 0.65 (0.39, 1.08) 0.78 (0.71, 0.86)
 Married/cohabiting 0.56 (0.45, 0.71) 0.89 (0.85, 0.93) 0.80 (0.63, 1.02) 1.01 (0.96, 1.05) 0.75 (0.59, 0.95) 0.97 (0.92, 1.01) 0.56 (0.45, 0.71) 0.87 (0.82, 0.91)
Sociodemographics        
Age         
 18-24      Referent - - -
 25-34      0.91 (0.54, 1.55) 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.07 (0.63, 1.81) 1.07 (0.97, 1.20)
 35-44      1.13 (0.67, 1.91) 1.04 (0.95, 1.15) 1.25 (0.74, 2.11) 1.08 (0.97, 1.19)
 45-54      1.07 (0.62, 1.84) 1.08 (0.97, 1.20) 1.17 (0.68, 2.02) 1.10 (0.98, 1.23)
 55-64      0.76 (0.44, 1.31) 1.11 (1.00, 1.24) 0.83 (0.48, 1.43) 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)
 65+      0.32 (0.18, 0.60) 1.21 (1.09, 1.33) 0.31 (0.16. 0.58) 1.16 (1.05, 1.29)
 Male gender      0.84 (0.66, 1.07) 0.91 (0.87, 0.95) 0.75 (0.58, 0.97) 0.88 (0.84, 0.92)
Education         
 Mandatory      Referent - - -
 Secondary      0.83 (0.59, 1.18) 0.97 (0.89, 1.05) 0.73 (0.51, 1.04) 0.93 (0.86, 1.01)
 High school      0.77 (0.45, 1.32) 0.93 (0.83, 1.03) 0.64 (0.37, 1.10) 0.89 (0.79, 0.99)
 University      0.86 (0.57, 1.30) 0.87 (0.79, 0.96) 0.73 (0.48, 1.12) 0.83 (0.75, 0.91)
Regional language         
 German      Referent - - -
 French      0.99 (0.78, 1.27) 1.32 (1.26, 1.39) 1.09 (0.85, 1.40) 1.35 (1.28, 1.41)
 Italian      0.98 (0.66, 1.45) 1.22 (1.12, 1.33) 1.10 (0.73, 1.65) 1.26 (1.15, 1.37)
Nationality         
 Swiss      Referent - - -
 Italian      1.28 (0.75, 2.21) 1.25 (1.05, 1.49) 1.45 (0.80, 2.62) 1.28 (1.07, 1.52)
 Other      1.09 (0.75, 1.58) 1.01 (0.94, 1.09) 1.05 (0.73, 1.52) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09)
  1. Twelve-month major depression was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) short form [38]. Depressive symptoms experienced over the last two weeks were assessed with the Depression Screening Questionnaire [39]. Incidence rate ratios for major depressive disorder were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors [44]. Incidence rate ratios for depressive symptoms were estimated using negative binomial regression. Confidence intervals (CI) that do not include 1.0 are statistically significant at p < = 0.05 and are in bold. Confidant and tangible support variables have three levels but have been scaled to 0, 0.5, 1.0 in order to increase comparability with binary predictors. CI = confidence interval.