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Table 4 Unadjusted and fully adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of under-five mortality by background characteristics (DRC-DHS, 2007)

From: Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey

Variable Unadjusted OR & 95% CI Fully adjusted OR & 95% CI
National   
Type of place of residence   
Urban 1.00 1.00
Rural 1.70 (1.47, 1.96) 1.09 (0.98, 1.25)
Sex of child   
Male 1.09 (0.96, 1.25) 1.03 (0.96, 1.13)
Female 1.00 1.00
Preceding birth interval   
< 24 months 1.65 (1.43, 1.91) 1.14 (1.04, 1.26)
≥ 24 months 1.00 1.00
Mother’s age at child’s birth   
≤ 20 years 1.14 (.98, 1.33) See Figure 2
21–35 years 1.00  
Antenatal visits   
No antenatal visits 1.52 (1.15, 2.01) 1.01 (0.89, 1.14)
≥ 1 antenatal visit 1.00 1.00
Place of delivery   
Hospital 1.00 1.00
Home 1.66 (1.44, 1.91) 1.13 (1.01, 1.27)
Asset index   
Low income household 1.65 (1.41, 1.96) 1.04 (0.92, 1.16)
Middle income household 1.29 (1.06, 1.57) 1.03 (0.90, 1.18)
Higher income household 1.00 1.00
Mother’s educational attainment   
Up to primary 1.65 (1.42, 1.93) 1.01 (0.93, 1.12)
Secondary or higher 1.00 1.00
Marital status of mother   
Single 1.15 (0.93, 1.42) 1.16 (1.03, 1.33)
Married 1.00 1.00
Province   
Kinshasa 0.85 (0.59, 1.23) 0.98 (0.86, 1.08)
Bas Congo 1.37 (0.95, 1.97) 1.01 (0.92, 1.13)
Bandundu 1.36 (0.96, 1.92) 0.96 (0.87, 1.05)
Équateur 1.65 (1.18, 2.30) 0.99 (0.90, 1.10)
Orientale 1.59 (1.11, 2.27) 1.00 (0.89, 1.10)
North Kivu 1.00 0.92 (0.72, 1.02)
Maniema 1.89 (1.36, 2.63) 1.01 (0.92, 1.11)
South Kivu 1.58 (1.13, 2.23) 1.04 (0.94, 1.15)
Katanga 1.71 (1.23, 2.39) 1.02 (0.92, 1.13)
Kasaï-Oriental 1.76 (1.27, 2.44) 1.04 (0.95, 1.16)
Kasaï-Occidental 1.47 (1.04, 2.07) 1.01 (0.90, 1.11)
  1. Unadjusted marginal odds ratios (OR) from standard logistic regression models. North Kivu province was used as the reference category because it had the lowest crude under-5 mortality (see Table 1).
  2. Spatially adjusted posterior odds ratios (OR) from Bayesian geo-additive regression models after controlling for nonlinear effect of age, categorical variables and the province of residence (spatial effects).