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Table 4 Knowledge of HIV discrimination and stigma

From: Knowledge of HIV and factors associated with attitudes towards HIV among final-year medical students at Hanoi medical university in Vietnam

Variable (N = 200) N(%)
Signs of discrimination  
 Avoidance: avoid touching, proximity, etc. 192 (96.0)
 Denial: denied housing, job loss, etc. 169 (84.5)
 Isolation: isolated area in hospitals, etc. 178 (89.0)
 Gossip from the community 179 (89.5)
 Loss of status within household and community 155 (77.5)
 Loss of access to essential resources 151 (75.5)
Main causes of stigma against PLHIV  
 Lack of knowledge about HIV 178 (89.0)
 Fear of HIV 185 (92.5)
 Connection of HIV to “social evils” 162 (81.0)
How does stigma affect PLHIV?  
 Self-discrimination 169 (84.5)
 Job loss or inability to find employment 176 (88.0)
 Difficulties in accessing social support services 177 (88.5)
 Hiding HIV status 181 (90.5)
How does stigma affect HIV patients’ family  
 Family members lose access to social support services 156 (78.0)
 Family income is affected- limited employment 170 (85.0)
 Family members also become victims of stigma 178 (89.0)
 Relationships within the households are affected 171 (85.5)
How does stigma affect the community/society  
 Stigma increases HIV transmission risks 157 (78.5)
 Wasting resources due to PLHIV don’t want to access intervention programs 178 (89.0)
 Stigma destroys traditional values (sense of belonging) 180 (90.0)