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Table 2 Characteristics of the study participants according to blood pressure levels

From: Associations of short sleep duration with prehypertension and hypertension among Lithuanian children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Variables Normotensive (n = 4504) Prehypertensive (n = 875) Hypertensive (n = 1561) P*
Categorical variables n % n % n %
Sex:        
   Boys 1,770 39.3 475 54.3 944 60.5 <0.001
   Girls 2,734 60.7 400 45.7 617 39.5  
Age (years):        
   12–13 2,608 57.9 292 33.4 694 44.5 <0.001
   14–15 1,896 42.1 583 66.6 867 55.5  
Sleep duration (h/day):        
   ≥8 3,406 75.6 529 60.5 947 60.6 <0.001
   7– < 8 796 17.7 234 26.7 424 27.2  
   <7 302 6.7 112 12.8 190 12.2  
BMI categories:        
   Normal weight 4,108 91.2 691 79.0 1,140 73.0 <0.001
   Overweight 349 7.8 149 17.0 337 21.6  
   Obesity 47 1.0 35 4.0 84 5.4  
Physical activity (h/day):        
   ≥1 4,066 90.3 762 87.1 1,351 86.5 <0.001
   0.5– < 1 339 7.5 85 9.7 169 10.8  
   <0.5 99 2.2 28 3.2 41 2.7  
Smoking:        
   No 4,171 92.6 782 89.4 1,444 92.5 0.003
   Yes 333 7.4 93 10.6 117 7.5  
Continuous variables # mean ± SD mean ± SD mean ± SD P**
Age (years) 13.29 ± 1.09 13.89 ± 1.03a 13.62 ± 1.09a,b <0.001
Weight (kg) 49.84 ± 10.15 59.54 ± 11.31a 60.22 ± 12.66a <0.001
Height (cm) 162.37 ± 9.32 169.75 ± 8.87a 168.20 ± 9.90a,b <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 18.77 ± 2.76 20.59 ± 3.22a 21.17 ± 3.50a,b <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 109.72 ± 6.93 124.85 ± 3.90a 139.41 ± 9.85a,b <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 63.10 ± 6.38 67.22 ± 6.91a 71.85 ± 8.08a,b <0.001
  1. Values are numbers and percentages.
  2. #Values are means ± SD (standard deviations).
  3. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure.
  4. *Significant differences between the groups were determined by the chi-squared (χ 2) test.
  5. **Significant differences between the three groups were determined by Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA (data in italics).
  6. aSignificantly different (P < 0.05) from normotensive participants (Mann–Whitney U test; t-test).
  7. bSignificantly different (P < 0.05) from prehypertensive participants (Mann–Whitney U test; t-test).
  8. a,bSuperscript letters in bold and italics indicate that significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups were determined by the t-test.