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Table 2 Housing characteristics and living conditions of the study participants, Greater Accra Region, Ghana, 2012

From: Residential characteristics as correlates of occupants’ health in the greater Accra region, Ghana

Variable Self-rated health
  Good health Frequency (%) Poor health Frequency (%)
Physical structure (n = 500)   
  Cement/concrete 367 (95.1) 19 (4.9)
  Brick/mud/wood 107 (93.8) 7 (6.2)
Roofing material (n = 500)   
  Aluminum sheets 278 (94.6) 16 (5.4)
  Asbestos/clay/thatch 196 (95.1) 10 (4.9)
Ventilation (n = 500)   
  <2 windows 74 (91.4) 7 (8.6)
  2+ windows 400 (95.5) 19 (4.5)
House type (n = 500)   
  Self-contained* 242 (97.2) 7 (2.8)
  Single family detached 61 (93.8) 4 (6.2)
  Compound 110 (94.0) 7 (6.0)
  Kiosk/container/other 61 (88.4) 8 (11.6)
House age (n = 498)   
  ≤10 years 172 (96.1) 7 (3.9)
  >10 years 151 (94.4) 9 (5.6)
  Don’t know 149 (93.7) 10 (6.3)
Duration of residence (n = 494)   
  ≤6 months 52 (92.9) 4 (7.1)
  >6 months 417 (95.2) 21 (4.8)
Occupancy at 2ppr** (n = 500)   
  1-2 ppr 302 (95.6) 14 (4.4)
  >2 ppr 172 (93.5) 12 (6.5)
Repair required (n = 496)   
  Yes 197 (90.4) 21 (9.6)
  No 273 (98.2) 5 (1.8)
House tenure (n = 499)   
  Owner/caretaker 276 (94.8) 15 (5.2)
  Renter 197 (94.7) 11 (5.3)
Affordability of rent (n = 497)   
  Yes 121 (96.5) 5 (4.0)
  No 82 (94.3) 5 (5.7)
  Not applicable 269 (94.7) 15 (5.3)
Privacy (n = 500)   
  Yes 403 (97.3) 11 (2.7)
  No 71 (82.6) 15 (17.4)
Electricity (n = 500)   
  Regular 255 (94.8) 14 (5.2)
  Irregular 219 (94.8) 12 (5.2)
Primary water source (n = 500)   
  Pipe/borehole 318 (94.6) 18 (5.4)
  Vended/stream/rainwater 156 (95.1) 8 (4.9)
  Refuse disposal system (n = 499)   
  House to house by service provider 195 (92.9) 15 (7.1)
  Traditional methods/communal collection 289 (96.2) 4 (3.8)
Type of sanitation facility (n = 496)   
  Flush to septic tank 288 (97.3) 8 (2.7)
  Pan latrine 102 (91.1) 10 (8.9)
  Pit latrine/open defaecation 77 (91.7) 7 (8.3)
  KVIP*** 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0)
Sanitary facility in the house (n = 500)   
  Present 333 (96.2) 13 (3.8)
  Absent 141 (91.6) 13 (8.4)
Sanitation facility shared (n = 500)   
  Yes 211 (92.5) 17 (7.5)
  No 263 (96.7) 9 (3.3)
Environmental sanitation   
  Satisfactory 321 (95.8) 14 (4.2)
  Not satisfactory 153 (92.7) 12 (7.3)
  1. *self-contained houses have kitchen and sanitation facilities ensuite, **ppr = persons per room, ***Kumasi ventilated pit toilet(a double chambered pit toilet).