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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Obesogenic environments: a systematic review of the association between the physical environment and adult weight status, the SPOTLIGHT project

First author Year Country Design† N Domain Main correlatesΩ O/P¥measure of PE M/S¥weight status Association Definition area§
      PA envir Food envir Trans-port Urban Form Other     expec-ted null unex-pected  
Northern America                 
Ahern [28] 2011 USA CS 3,128   x     Restaurants and grocery stores O S x    County
Black [29] 2009 USA LG 48,506 x x    x Stores, facilities, crime O S x    Census nbh
Black [30] 2010 USA CS 9,916 x x     Food avail, opportunities & barriers to PA O S x   x Census nbh
Block [31] 2011 USA LG 3,113   x     Proximity to food establishments O M x x   Census nbh
Bodea [32] 2009 USA CS 6,893 x    x   Street connectivity, residential density O S x    1 km buffer
Bodor [33] 2010 USA CS 3,925 x      Food environment O S x x   2 km buffer
Brown [34] 2009 USA CS 5,000 x   x x   Walkable land use, destinations O S x x x Census block group
Brown [35] 2013 USA CS 3.528 x      Walkability, bikeability O M x    Census block group
Casagrande [36] 2011 USA CS 3,493 x      Walkability O M   x   Census nbh
Chen [37] 2012 USA CS 3,550   x     Food outlets O S x x   0.5 mile buffer
Doyle [38] 2006 USA CS 9,252 x     x Walkability, crime O M x    County
Drewnowski [39] 2012 USA CS 1,682   x     Proximity and price of supermarkets O S    x 1 mile distance to supermarket
Eid [40] 2008 USA CS 5,500     x   Urban sprawl O S   x   2 mile radius disc
Ewing [41] 2003 USA CS 206,992     x   Urban sprawl O S x    County
Frank [42] 2004 USA CS 10,878 x    x   Land use mix O S x    Block group/square kilometer
Frank [43] 2008 USA CS 13,065     x   Residential density,, street connectivity, land use mix O S x    1 km distance
Frank [44] 2007 USA CS 2,056 x      Walkability O S x    Road polygons traveling 1 km from house
Frank [45] 2007 USA CS 1,228 x      Walkability O S x    1 km network buffer
Frank [46] 2009 USA CS    x     Food outlet visits, walkability O S x x   1 km
Gibson [47] 2011 USA LG 8,100   x     Food environment O S x    ZIP code area
Gregson [48] 2011 USA CS 14,205   x   x   Sprawl and restaurant types O S x   x County
Hattori [49] 2013 USA CS 97,678   x     nbh food outlets O S   x   1 mile Euclidian distance
Hoehner [50] 2011 USA CS 17,000 x      Walkability O M x    Block group
Hutchinson [51] 2012 USA CS 1,243   x     Availability of healthy & unhealthy foods O S x x   Census tract
Inagami [52] 2009 USA CS 2,156   x     Fast food & restaurant concentration O S x    Census tract
James [53] 2012 USA CS 68,000     x   County sprawl index O S x    County
Jeffery [54] 2006 USA CS 1,033   x     Proximity of (fastfood) restaurants O S   x   0.5 miles, 1 miles and 2 miles from home and work adresses
Jilcott [55] 2010 USA CS 9,800   x     Food retail gap O S x    County
Keegan [56] 2012 USA CS 133,000     x x Population & housing density, commuting characteristics O S   x   Census nbh
Lesser [57] 2013 USA CS 2,589   x     Outdoor food advertising O S x    Census tract
Lopez [58] 2004 USA CS 104,084     x   Urban sprawl O S x    Tracts of approx 4000 people
Lopez [59] 2007 USA CS 15,358 x x   x x Various O S x x   ZCTA
Lovasi [60] 2009 USA CS 13,102 x      Walkability O M x    1 km buffer
Lovasi [61] 2012 USA CS 13,102 x   x   x Walkability, aesthetics, safety O M x x x 1 km buffer
McDonald [62] 2012 USA CS 690 x      Walkability O M   x   Census block group
Mehta [63] 2008 USA CS 714,054   x     Restaurant mix O S x    County
Mobley [64] 2006 USA CS 2,692 x x   x x Fitness facilities, food establish-ments, crime O   x x   ZIP code areas
Morland [65] 2006 USA CS 10,763   x     Food stores O   x    Census tract
Oka [66] 2012 USA CS 5,485 x x x    Various O M   x   Census tract
Plantinga [67] 2007 USA LG 4,700     x   Sprawl O S x    County
Plantinga [68] 2007 USA CS 3,607     x   Sprawl O S   x   County
Rundle [69] 2007 USA CS 13,102 x   x x   Land use, bus stop density, pop density, intersection density O M x x   Census tract area
Rundle [70] 2008 USA CS 13,102 x x     Density of BMI-healthy food outlets and walkability O M x x   805 meter network buffer
Rundle [71] 2009 USA CS 13,102 x x     Food environment and walkability O M x x   Half-mile radius circular buffers
Rundle [72] 2013 USA CS 13,102 x      Park characteristics O M x x   Half-mile radius circular buffers
Sallis [73] 2009 USA CS 2,199 x      Walkability O S x    Block groups
Samimi [74] 2009 USA CS 300,000    x x   Transport, land use, built environment O S x    Census tract
Scott [75] 2009 USA CS 1,750 x    x x Safety, des- tina- tions, social fac- tors O S x x   Urban census tract
Smith [76] 2008 USA CS 453,927 x      Walkability O S x x   Census block group
Smith [77] 2011 USA CS 100,000 x      Walkability O S x x   Census block group
Wang [78] 2007 USA CS 7,595   x     Proximity & density of fastfood restaurants & food retail O S x x   Combination of census tracks and block groups
West [79] 2012 USA CS 99,534 x      Park(land) area O S x    metropolitan statistical area
Yamada [80] 2011 USA CS 4,960     x   mixed land use O S x    Block group, tract, 1 km buffer
Zhao [81] 2010 USA LG      x   Urban sprawl O S x    Census metropolitan areas/county level
Zick [82] 2009 USA CS 453,927 x x     Food and PA opportunities O S x x   Block groups
Zick [83] 2013 USA CS 35,685 x      Walkability O S x    Census block
Bai [84] 2013 USA CS 893 x      Park quality P S x x   Census block within 0.5 miles of park
Catlin [85] 2003 USA CS 2,821 x x     Community perceptions, community infrastructure, PA facilities P S x x   Community
Mujahid [86] 2008 USA CS 2,865 x x    x Neighborhood conditions P M x x   Census tract
Powell-Wiley [87] 2013 USA CS 5,907 x x    x nbh violence, physical environment, social cohesion P M x x   Neighborhood
Wilson [88] 2007 USA CS 1,111 x     x opportunities for PA and pleasant neighbourhoods P S x x   Neighborhood and community
Tilt [89] 2007 USA CS 529 x      greenness, accessibility O&P S x x   0.4 mile distance
Boehmer [90] 2007 USA CS 1,032 x   x x x Facilities land use, transportation, aesthetics O&P S x x x 400 m radius
Rutt [91] 2005 USA CS 996 x    x x Various O&P S   x   1/4 mile radius and 2.5 mile radius
Pendola [92] 2007 USA CS 670     x x Population density, sense of community O&P S   x   Census tract
Joshu [93] 2008 USA CS 1,818     x   Sprawl, urbanization O&P S x    FIPS code
Berry [94] 2010 Canada CS & LG 572 and 1,164 x      Ease of walking and proximity to outdoor recreation O S   x   Census nbh
Spence [95] 2009 Canada CS 2,900   x     RFEI (retail food environment index) O S x x   800 m and 1600 m
Pouliou [96] 2010 Canada CS 115,548 x x   x   Built environment O S x    Subprovincial scale
Prince [97] 2012 Canada CS 6,564 x x    x Recreation, social, food environment O S x x   Neighborhoods based on natural barriers?
Prince [98] 2011 Canada CS 5,025 x x    x Recreation, social, food environment O S x x   Neighborhoods based on natural barriers?
Ross [99] 2007 Canada CS 33,000     x x Dwelling density, sprawl, immigration O S x x   Census tract area
Kestens [100] 2012 Canada CS 5,578   x     Food environment O S x x   Census nbh
Berry [101] 2010 Canada CS & LG 500 x      Perceptions of neighbourhood O&P S   x   Census nbh
Australasia                 
Garden [102] 2008 Australia CS 7,290     x   Urban sprawl O S x    Local government area
Pearce [103] 2009 New Zealand CS 12,529   x     distance to fastfood outlet O M   x x meshblock neighbourhoods
Richardson [104] 2013 New Zealand CS 8,157 x      Urban green space O M   x   Census area unit
Christian [105] 2011 Australia CS 1,151 x x     Built & social environment O&P S x x   1.6 km road network service area
Gebel [106] 2011 Australia LG 1,027 x    x   Walkability, dwelling density, land use mix O&P S x x   Census collector district
Giles-Corti [107] 2003 Australia CS 1,803 x      Physical environment O&P S x    Collector districts
Europe                 
Ball [108] 2012 UK CS 1,062 x      Street connectivity O S    x Datazone
Van Dyck [109] 2010 Belgium CS 1,200 x      Walkability O S   x   Statistical sectors
Santana [110] 2009 Portugal CS 7,669 x x   x x Environmental disadvantages & opportunities O S x x   Neighbourhood?
Ellaway [111] 2005 Europe CS 6,919 x     x Graffiti, greenery O S x    immediate residential environment
Macdonald [112] 2011 UK CS 991   x     Distance to food stores O S   x x 500 and 1000 meter
Leal [113] 2012 France CS 7,230     x x Sociodemographic factors, physical factors, service-related, social-interactional environment O M x x   500 m radius/TRIRIS geographic unit
Burgoine [114] 2011 UK CS 893   x   x   Residential density, street connectivity, land use mix O S x x   LSOA/MSOA
Coombes [115] 2010 UK CS 6,821 x      Green space O S x    Not applicable (distance)/800 meter
Cummins [116] 2012 UK CS 79,136 x      Percentage greenspace O S   x x MSOA
Poortinga [117] 2006 UK CS 14,836     x x Friendliness, trust, social capital, access P M x x   Postcode sectors
Toftager [118] 2011 Denmark CS 21,832 x      Distance to green space P S x    Not applicable (distance)
Nielsen [119] 2007 Denmark CS 2,000 x      Perceptions of distance to garden/green area P S x    Not applicable (distance)
  1. † CS = cross-sectional, LG = longitudinal.
  2. ‡ x = association was statistically significant in this direction.
  3. ¥ Measures of the Physical Environment (PE): O = objective, P = perceived. Measures of weight status: M = objectively measured, S = self-reported.
  4. Ω PA = physical activity, nbh = neighbourhood.
  5. § nbh = neighbourhood, km = kilometer, m = meter, LSOA/MSOA = lower/middle statistical output area, ZCTA = Zip Code Tabulation Area.