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Table 4 Risk factors for incomplete vaccination schedules by coverage level: 10 departments of Guatemala, May 2011

From: From the parents’ perspective: a user-satisfaction survey of immunization services in Guatemala

Characteristic Low-coverage departments (n = 868) High-coverage departments (n = 725)
  Immunization schedule Univariate risk factor analysisa Immunization schedule Univariate risk factor analysis
  Incomplete (n = 256) no. (%) Complete (n = 612) no. (%) Prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) P Incomplete (n = 231) no. (%) Complete (n = 494) no. (%) Prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) P
Age of caregiver         
  15-19 19 (31.7) 41 (68.3) 1.11 (0.74, 1.65) 0.62 14 (26.4) 39 (73.6) 0.87 (0.54, 1.39) 0.55
  20-24 54 (25.8) 155 (74.2) 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.46 64 (32.5) 133 (67.5) 1.06 (0.83, 1.37) 0.63
  25-39 134 (28.6) 334 (71.4) Reference   120 (30.5) 273 (69.5) Reference  
  >39 49 (37.4) 82 (62.6) 1.31 (1.00, 1.70) 0.047 33 (40.2) 49 (59.8) 1.32 (0.97, 1.78) 0.07
Education         
  None 52 (34.4) 99 (65.6) 1.49 (1.10, 2.00) 0.010 47 (43.2) 62 (56.8) 1.72 (1.26, 2.34) 0.0007
  Primary or less 134 (32.3) 281 (67.7) 1.39 (1.09, 1.79) 0.009 127 (32.6) 262 (67.4) 1.30 (1.00, 1.70) 0.05
  More than primary 70 (23.1) 232 (76.8) Reference   57 (25.1) 170 (74.9) Reference  
Occupation         
  Other 35 (25.9) 100 (74.1) 0.86 (0.63, 1.17) 0.33 31 (32.3) 65 (67.7) 1.02 (0.74, 1.39) 0.92
  Housewife 221 (30.2) 512 (69.8) Reference   200 (31.8) 429 (68.2) Reference  
Marital status b         
  Singlec 54 (36.8) 91 (63.2) 1.32 (1.02, 1.71) 0.0347 42 (39.6) 64 (60.4) 1.36 (1.03, 1.80) 0.03
  Married 124 (28.2) 316 (71.8) Reference   113 (29.1) 275 (70.9) Reference  
  Civil union 77 (27.6) 202 (72.4) 0.98 (0.77, 1.25) 0.86 75 (32.9) 153 (67.1) 1.13 (0.89, 1.44) 0.32
No. of children 0-5 d         
  1st child 191 (30.2) 441 (69.8) Reference   195 (34.7) 367 (65.3) Reference  
  2nd child 48 (26.5) 133 (73.5) 0.88 (0.67, 1.15) 0.34 29 (20.7) 111 (79.3) 0.60 (0.42, 0.84) 0.0032
  3rd child or more 17 (30.9) 38 (69.1) 1.02 (0.68, 1.55) 0.91 7 (30.4) 16 (69.6) 0.88 (0.47, 1.64) 0.68
Age of children         
  0-1 17 (13.4) 110 (86.6) Reference   20 (16.8) 99 (83.2) Reference  
  1 18 (11.7) 136 (88.3) 0.87 (0.47, 1.62) 0.67 16 (11.2) 127 (88.8) 0.67 (0.36, 1.23) 0.19
  2 71 (47.3) 79 (52.7) 3.54 (2.20, 5.68) <0.0001 48 (38.1) 78 (61.9) 2.27 (1.43, 3.58) 0.0005
  3 42 (25.1) 125 (74.9) 1.88 (1.12, 3.14) 0.016 39 (36.1) 69 (63.9) 2.15 (1.34, 3.44) 0.0015
  4 72 (50.7) 70 (49.3) 3.79 (2.36, 6.07) <0.0001 80 (55.2) 65 (44.8) 3.28 (2.14, 5.03) <0.0001
  5 36 (28.1) 92 (71.9) 2.10 (1.25, 3.54) 0.0053 28 (33.3) 56 (66.7) 1.98 (1.20, 3.27) 0.0074
  1. aA univariate risk factor analysis was performed to determine factors associated with undervaccination in high- and low-coverage areas using Confidence Intervals of 95%. Groups with incomplete schedules were placed in the “positive outcome” column, while those with complete schedules were placed in the “negative outcome” column. Statistically significant values (p < 0.05) are bolded.
  2. bUnder this category, seven cases marked as “other” were excluded.
  3. cThe category “single” includes participants who indicated being single, divorced, or widowed.
  4. dParticipants were asked if they had multiple children aged 0–5 years. Categories correspond to the birth order of only those children aged 0–5 years.