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Table 1 ECC pattern according to newborn characteristics, feeding practices, oral hygiene habits, and access to dental services

From: Pattern and severity of early childhood caries in Southern Italy: a preschool-based cross-sectional study

Variable or practice   ECC S-ECC dmft Mean ± SD dt Mean ± SD dmfs Mean ± SD ds Mean ± SD
  N % N % N %     
Social demographics and newborn characteristics
Age, months
  36-47 161 31.2 14 8.7 2 1.2 0.17 ± 0.78 0.17 ± 0.78 0.30 ± 1.65 0.25 ± 1.6
  48-59 196 38.1 37 18.9 6 3.1 0.49 ± 1.38 0.45 ± 1.29 0.96 ± 3.09 0.86 ± 2.98
  60-71 158 30.7 47 29.8 6 3.8 0.89 ± 1.78 0.86 ± 1.77 1.71 ± 3.81 1.68 ± 3.81
    χ 2 for trend = 22.89; p < 0.001 Fisher’s exact p = 0.324 F = 10.99 p < 0.001 F = 10.86 p < 0.001 F = 8.78 p < 0.001 F = 9.40 p < 0.001
Gender
  Male 262 50.9 54 20.6 8 3.1 0.58 ± 1.51 0.54 ± 1.46 1.12 ± 3.24 1.03 ± 3.18
  Female 253 49.1 44 17.4 6 2.4 0.44 ± 1.27 0.43 ± 1.25 0.85 ± 2.82 0.81 ± 2.78
    χ 2 = 0.87; p = 0.352 χ 2 = 0.23; p = 0.634 t-test = -1.15; p = 0.251 t-test = -0.923; p = 0.355 t-test = -1; p = 0.317 t-test = -0.85; p = 0.395
Father’s age, years
  ≤35 177 35.1 36 20.3 5 2.8 0.6 ± 1.57 0.6 ± 1.57 1.24 ± 3.72 1.2 ± 3.71
  36-40 160 31.7 31 19.4 7 4.4 0.52 ± 1.37 0.44 ± 1.25 1.04 ± 2.88 0.86 ± 2.72
  41-45 125 24.7 23 18.4 2 1.6 0.46 ± 1.35 0.46 ± 1.35 0.78 ± 2.63 0.78 ± 2.63
  ≥46 43 8.5 8 18.6 0 - 0.37 ± 0.95 0.37 ± 0.95 0.56 ± 1.58 0.56 ± 1.58
    χ 2 for trend = 0.18; p = 0.676 Fisher’s exact p = 0.446 F = 0.45; p = 0.714 F = 0.6; p = 0.618 F = 0.87; p = 0.458 F = 0.81; p = 0.486
Mother’s age, years
  ≤30 105 20.7 32 30.5 9 8.6 1.02 ± 2.12 0.91 ± 2.02 1.91 ± 4.91 1.81 ± 4.86
  31-35 166 32.7 24 14.5 1 0.6 0.3 ± 0.86 0.3 ± 0.86 0.71 ± 2.07 0.61 ± 1.95
  36-40 171 33.6 31 18.1 4 2.3 0.49 ± 1.39 0.49 ± 1.39 0.91 ± 2.73 0.87 ± 2.7
  ≥41 66 13 10 15.2 0 - 0.32 ± 0.88 0.32 ± 0.88 0.5 ± 1.52 0.5 ± 1.52
    χ 2 for trend = 4.94; p = 0.026 Fisher’s exact p = 0.001 F = 6.43; p = 0.0003 F = 4.87; p = 0.002 F = 4.35; p = 0.005 F = 4.16; p = 0.006
Child order
  First 123 30.9 19 15.5 4 3.3 0.46 ± 1.45 0.41 ± 1.36 0.96 ± 3.48 0.88 ± 3.44
  Second 213 51 47 23.2 5 2.5 0.56 ± 1.4 0.54 ± 1.38 1.08 ± 3.05 0.99 ± 2.96
  Third or more 72 18.1 12 16.7 3 4.2 0.58 ± 1.55 0.58 ± 1.55 1.07 ± 2.74 1.01 ± 2.72
    χ 2 for trend = 0.3; p = 0.583 Fisher’s exact p = 0.683 F = 0.25; p = 0.78 F = 0.47; p = 0.627 F = 0.06; p = 0.939 F = 0.07; p = 0.935
Father’s education level
  None/elementary school 16 3.2 6 37.5 1 6.3 1.19 ± 2.2 1.19 ± 2.2 2.25 ± 5 2.25 ± 5
  Junior high school 183 36.6 45 24.6 8 4.4 0.68 ± 1.6 0.66 ± 1.59 1.28 ± 3.2 1.2 ± 3.15
  High school 246 49.2 32 13 4 1.6 0.35 ± 1.18 0.32 ± 1.09 0.74 ± 2.83 0.67 ± 2.75
  University 55 11 13 23.6 0 - 0.42 ± 0.9 0.42 ± 0.9 0.58 ± 1.4 0.58 ± 1.4
    χ 2 for trend = 4.52; p = 0.03 Fisher’s exact p = 0.112 F = 3.45; p = 0.016 F = 3.87; p = 0.009 F = 2.50; p = 0.059 F = 2.53; p = 0.056
Mother’s education level
  None/elementary school 16 3.2 5 31.3 1 6.3 0.69 ± 1.74 0.69 ± 1.74 1.19 ± 3.71 1.19 ± 3.71
  Junior high school 141 27.8 37 26.2 8 5.7 0.83 ± 1.82 0.82 ± 1.81 1.58 ± 3.77 1.5 ± 3.72
  High school 268 53 39 14.6 4 1.5 0.36 ± 1.14 0.33 ± 1.07 0.69 ± 2.56 0.61 ± 2.49
  University 81 16 15 18.5 0 - 0.36 ± 0.88 0.35 ± 0.88 0.73 ± 2.07 0.72 ± 2.08
    χ 2 for trend = 5.10; p = 0.024 Fisher’s exact p = 0.019 F = 4.11; p = 0.007 F = 4.65; p = 0.003 F = 3.08; p = 0.027 F = 3.09; p = 0.027
Maternal age at delivery, years
  ≤25 105 20.8 33 31.4 9 8.6 1.06 ± 2.12 0.95 ± 2.03 2.05 ± 4.9 1.92 ± 4.86
  26-30 179 35.4 31 17.3 2 1.1 0.35 ± 0.95 0.35 ± 0.95 0.75 ± 2.2 0.67 ± 2.11
  31-35 158 31.3 23 16.5 3 1.9 0.47 ± 1.38 0.47 ± 1.38 0.85 ± 2.68 0.82 ± 2.65
  ≥36 63 12.5 8 12.7 0 - 0.24 ± 0.73 0.24 ± 0.73 0.37 ± 1.21 0.37 ± 1.21
    χ 2 for trend = 9.36; p = 0.002 Fisher’s exact p = 0.003 F = 7.1; p < 0.001 F = 5.48; p = 0.001 F = 5.64; p = 0.001 F = 5.18; p = 0.002
Infant feeding practices
History and duration of breastfeeding, months
  No 95 19.5 15 15.8 1 1.1 0.38 ± 1.08 0.38 ± 1.08 0.69 ± 2.1 0.69 ± 2.1
  ≤ 4 150 30.8 28 18.7 6 4 0.59 ± 1.68 0.56 ± 1.67 1.25 ± 4.05 1.19 ± 4.03
  5-10 115 23.6 14 12.2 0 - 0.22 ± 0.62 0.22 ± 0.62 0.37 ± 1.03 0.31 ± 0.96
  11-19 62 12.7 13 20.1 0 - 0.44 ± 1.07 0.44 ± 1.07 0.94 ± 2.47 0.76 ± 2.26
  ≥ 20 65 13.4 20 30.8 6 9.2 1.06 ± 2.08 1.03 ± 2.03 2.06 ± 4.3 2.02 ± 4.25
    χ 2 for trend = 4.10; p = 0.043 Fisher’s exact p = 0.002 F = 4.24; p = 0.002 F = 3.95; p = 0.004 F = 3.66; p = 0.006 F = 3.75; p = 0.005
Non-nutritive sucking habits (finger or pacifier)
  No 473 93.8 87 18.4 14 2.9 0.51 ± 1.42 0.48 ± 1.38 1 ± 3.1 0.93 ± 3.05
  Yes 37 7.2 9 24.3 0 - 0.49 ± 1.07 0.49 ± 1.07 0.76 ± 2.3 0.76 ± 2.3
    χ 2 = 0.79; p = 0.374 Fisher’s exact p = 0.613 t-test = 0.09; p = 0.93 t-test = -0.02; p = 0.985 t-test = 0.47; p = 0.641 t-test = 0.28; p = 0.781
Bottle feeding
  No 79 15.7 19 24.1 6 7.6 0.89 ± 2.03 0.89 ± 2.03 1.84 ± 4.35 1.84 ± 4.35
  Yes 423 84.3 77 18.2 8 1.9 0.44 ± 1.25 0.41 ± 1.2 0.84 ± 2.74 0.76 ± 2.67
    χ 2 = 1.47; p = 0.225 χ 2 = 7.99; p = 0.005 t-test = 2.66; p = 0.008 t-test = 2.9; p = 0.004 t-test = 2.66; p = 0.008 t-test = 2.93; p = 0.004
Sleep with sweetened bottle or pacifier
  No 412 80.8 71 17.2 12 2.9 0.47 ± 1.34 0.44 ± 1.3 0.9 ± 2.83 0.82 ± 2.77
  Yes 98 19.2 25 25.5 2 2 0.67 ± 1.59 0.65 ± 1.59 1.35 ± 3.81 1.31 ± 3.8
    χ 2 = 3.55; p = 0.06 Fisher’s exact p = 1 t-test = -1.32; p = 0.187 t-test = -1.38; p = 0.167 t-test = -1.32; p = 0.188 t-test = -1.44; p = 0.151
Start using cup, months
  ≤ 12 284 59.9 46 16.2 7 2.5 0.42 ± 1.3 0.39 ± 1.24 0.77 ± 2.59 0.72 ± 2.56
  13-18 58 12.2 11 19 1 1.7 0.52 ± 1.42 0.52 ± 1.42 1.34 ± 3.67 1.16 ± 3.55
  ≥ 19 132 27.9 33 25 4 3 0.64 ± 1.43 0.61 ± 1.4 1.1 ± 2.96 1.08 ± 2.92
    χ 2 for trend = 4.44; p = 0.035 Fisher’s exact p = 0.912 F = 1.14; p = 0.321 F = 1.35; p = 0.26 F = 1.31; p = 0.27 F = 1.08; p = 0.341
Sweets consumption
  Never 20 4.1 1 5.0 0 - 0.05 ± 0.22 0.05 ± 0.22 0.05 ± 0.22 0.05 ± 0.22
  Less than once a day 220 44.6 39 17.7 6 2.7 0.46 ± 1.31 0.43 ± 1.26 0.82 ± 2.56 0.77 ± 2.52
  At least once a day 253 51.3 51 20.2 8 3.2 0.58 ± 1.52 0.56 ± 1.5 1.19 ± 3.54 1.09 ± 3.47
    Fisher’s exact p = 0.241 Fisher’s exact p = 1 F = 1.51; p = 0.222 F = 1.57; p = 0.21 F = 1.79; p = 0.168 F = 1.54; p = 0.215
Oral hygiene habits
Toothbrushing habits
  Less than once a day 144 28.5 35 24.3 4 2.8 0.59 ± 1.49 0.57 ± 1.46 1.16 ± 3.28 1.08 ± 3.23
  Once a day 210 41.5 32 15.2 6 2.9 0.44 ± 1.36 0.43 ± 1.34 0.85 ± 2.96 0.78 ± 2.89
  More than once a day 152 30 31 20.4 4 2.6 0.56 ± 1.4 0.51 ± 1.33 1.07 ± 3 1.02 ± 2.98
    χ 2 for trend = 0.67; p = 0.415 Fisher’s exact p = 1 F = 0.55; p = 0.576 F = 0.44; p = 0.647 F = 0.47; p = 0.623 F = 0.49; p = 0.612
Start toothbrushing, months
  ≤12 76 15.8 14 18.4 3 4 0.61 ± 1.71 0.61 ± 1.71 1.28 ± 3.62 1.2 ± 3.58
  13-24 219 45.4 33 15.1 2 0.9 0.37 ± 1.09 0.34 ± 1.02 0.73 ± 2.32 0.64 ± 2.22
  ≥25 187 38.8 42 22.5 7 3.7 0.61 ± 1.48 0.58 ± 1.44 1.1 ± 3.26 1.05 ± 3.23
    χ 2 for trend = 1.57; p = 0.21 Fisher’s exact p = 0.087 F = 1.91; p = 0.15 F = 2.11; p = 0.122 F = 1.31 p = 0.271 F = 1.52; p = 0.221
Toothpaste use
  No 32 6.4 3 9.4 2 6.3 0.47 ± 1.74 0.47 ± 1.74 0.93 ± 3.83 0.93 ± 3.83
  Yes 467 93.6 91 19.5 12 2.6 0.52 ± 1.39 0.49 ± 1.35 1 ± 3.02 0.93 ± 2.97
    Fisher’s exact p = 0.24 Fisher’s exact p = 0.224 t-test = -0.19; p = 0.848 t-test = -0.09; p = 0.925 t-test = -0.12; p = 0.906 t-test = 0.01; p = 0.991
Adult supervision of toothbrushing
  No 26 5.3 5 19.2 2 7.7 0.81 ± 2 0.81 ± 2 1.62 ± 4.61 1.62 ± 4.61
  Yes 466 94.7 85 18.2 10 2.2 0.47 ± 1.3 0.44 ± 1.26 0.9 ± 2.79 0.83 ± 2.72
    χ 2 = 0.02; p = 0.899 Fisher’s exact p = 0.128 t-test = 1.24; p = 0.214 t-test = 1.38; p = 0.169 t-test = 1.22; p = 0.224 t-test = 1.37; p = 0.171
Use of fluoride supplements
  No 314 64.3 58 18.5 7 2.2 0.48 ± 1.34 0.45 ± 1.29 0.92 ± 2.83 0.84 + 2.76
  Yes 174 35.7 34 19.5 7 4 0.6 ± 1.57 0.59 ± 1.54 1.2 ± 3.56 1.15 ± 3.53
    χ 2 = 0.08; p = 0.772 χ 2 = 1.29; p = 0.256 t-test = -0.93; p = 0.351 t-test = -1.04; p = 0.297 t-test = -0.94; p = 0.35 t-test = -1.08; p = 0.281
Access to dental services
Dental visit in the previous year
  No 413 83.1 62 15 6 1.5 0.35 ± 1.1 0.34 ± 1.1 0.64 ± 2.28 0.59 ± 2.23
  Yes 84 16.9 33 39.3 8 9.5 1.37 ± 2.24 1.25 ± 2.17 2.82 ± 5.2 2.63 ± 5.17
    χ 2 = 26.6; p < 0.001 χ 2 = 16.61; p < 0.001 t-test = -6.27; p < 0.001 t-test = -5.68; p < 0.001 t-test = -6.13; p < 0.001 t-test = -5.8; p < 0.001
  1. ECC = early childhood caries, S-ECC = severe early childhood caries.