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Table 2 Differences in economic outcomes between symptomatic or diagnosed angina-affected households and control households in South Asia, 2002-2003

From: The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia

Economic outcome indicators Bangladesh India Nepal Sri Lanka
Treated Controls-matched p-value Treated Controls-matched p-value Treated Controls-matched p-value Treated Controls-matched p-value
Per person OOP health spending in last four weeks (I$) 8.80 (7.39, 10.21) 6.86 (5.76, 7.96) 0.04* 8.25 (6.94, 9.56) 6.80 (5.00, 8.60) 0.25 9.65 (5.79, 13.51) 4.97 (3.59, 6.35) 0.03* 4.22 (3.16, 5.28) 2.23 (1.42, 3.04) <0.01*
Per person expenditure on medicine in last four weeks (I$) 5.40 (4.77, 6.03) 4.60 (3.80, 5.40) 0.16 4.31 (3.30, 5.32) 3.45 (2.40, 4.50) 0.30 6.71 (4.16, 9.26) 3.27 (2.57, 3.97) 0.01* 1.94 (1.46, 2.42) 1.00 (0.68, 1.32) <0.01*
Per person hospitalization expenses in last four weeks (I$) 0.96 (-0.01, 1.93) 0.24 (0.04, 0.44) 0.16 1.44 (0.87, 2.01) 1.66 (0.35, 2.97) 0.80 1.16 (0.15, 2.17) 0.46 (-0.01, 0.93) 0.22 0.92 (0.22, 1.62) 0.18 (-0.04, 0.40) 0.05*
Borrowing or selling assets to finance health expenditure in last one year (%) 46.06 (42.46, 49.66) 40.08 (36.23, 43.93) 0.03* 51.79 (48.86, 54.72) 43.56 (40.27, 46.85) <0.01* 57.62 (53.66, 61.58) 53.60 (49.41, 57.79) 0.18 21.25 (16.77, 25.73) 13.44 (9.36, 17.52) 0.01*
OOP health spending share of total household expenditure at 20% cut-off 28.40 (25.14, 31.66) 24.59 (21.21, 27.97) 0.13 28.26 (25.62, 30.9) 18.69 (16.10, 21.28) <0.01* 18.26 (15.16, 21.36) 13.40 (10.53, 16.27) 0.02* 13.44 (9.70, 17.18) 4.37 (1.92, 6.82) <0.01*
OOP health spending share of household’s ‘capacity to pay’ at 40% cut-off 39.40 (35.87, 42.93) 35.87 (32.11, 39.63) 0.20 33.00 (30.24, 35.76) 26.30 (23.38, 29.22) <0.01* 21.27 (17.99, 24.55) 16.75 (13.61, 19.89) 0.05* 21.87 (17.34, 26.40) 11.87 (8.00, 15.74) <0.01*
Ratio of OOP health spending and total household expenditure (%) 15.73 (13.10, 18.36) 13.75 (11.05, 16.45) 0.02* 15.10 (13.00, 17.20) 11.52 (9.40, 13.64) <0.01* 9.86 (7.47, 12.25) 7.61 (5.38, 9.84) 0.01* 7.91 (4.95, 10.87) 4.49 (2.01, 6.97) <0.01*
Ratio of OOP medicine expenses and total household expenditure (%) 11.28 (8.99, 13.57) 10.07 (7.71, 12.43) 0.05* 8.62 (6.97, 10.27) 6.89 (5.21, 8.57) <0.01* 7.97 (5.80, 10.14) 5.84 (3.87, 7.81) <0.01* 3.96 (1.82, 6.10) 2.19 (0.44, 3.94) <0.01*
Impoverishment due to OOP health payments (%) 12.63 (10.23, 15.03) 11.82 (9.29, 14.35) 0.66 10.20 (8.43, 11.97) 8.32 (6.49, 10.15) 0.18 8.37 (6.15, 10.59) 6.20 (4.17, 8.23) 0.16 5.31 (2.85, 7.77) 1.87 (0.25, 3.49) 0.03*
Employment status of angina-affected individual (%) 40.76 (37.21, 44.31) 38.45 (34.63, 42.27) 0.41 55.10 (52.18, 58.02) 56.08 (52.79, 59.37) 0.68 67.50 (63.74, 71.26) 70.52 (66.68, 74.36) 0.28 39.69 (34.33, 45.05) 40.62 (34.74, 46.5) 0.83
Unemployed due to illness (%) 2.72 (1.54, 3.90) 0.27 (-0.14, 0.68) <0.01* 5.81 (4.44, 7.18) 4.29 (2.95, 5.63) 0.14 4.86 (3.14, 6.58) 2.85 (1.45, 4.25) 0.07 8.12 (5.13, 11.11) 3.44 (1.26, 5.62) 0.02*
Per person non-medical consumption expenditure in last four weeks (I$) 46.78 (36.51, 57.05) 39.81 (33.24, 46.38) 0.25 34.02 (30.95, 37.09) 37.30 (29.12, 45.48) 0.42 47.65 (43.69, 51.61) 42.41 (39.60, 45.22) 0.04* 37.72 (35.46, 39.98) 40.60 (37.43, 43.77) 0.18
Sample 736 624 - 1118 872 - 597 543 - 320 268 -
  1. Notes: Un-weighted estimates are based on authors’ calculations using raw data from the World Health Survey conducted during 2002-2003 and using nearest-neighbor matching. The data presented refer to the households, which responded to the survey question on whether or not a household member experienced any angina which includes diagnosed or symptomatic angina. 95% confidence intervals are reported in parentheses underneath each mean/proportion. Considering the sample used in the nearest-neighbor matching statistically significant difference between the treatment and matched controls are shown at the significance level of 5%*. All expenditure estimates are in international dollar based on the World Banks’s purchasing power parity in 2003. For impoverishing effect the World Bank’s international poverty line for low income countries (1.25 international dollar per person per day) is used.