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Table 2 Latent classes of TV exposure between ages 2 and 5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

From: Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

  Teacher report (N = 3423) Peer/self-report (N = 1176)
TV exposure latent class Unadjusted Adjusted for covariates a Unadjusted Adjusted for covariates a
  OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
  Risk of being a bully b
Low Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mid-low 1.07 (0.79-1.44) 0.66 1.00 (0.74-1.35) 0.99 0.85 (0.51-1.43) 0.54 0.68 (0.39-1.18) 0.17
Mid-high 1.35 (0.98-1.84) 0.07 1.15 (0.83-1.59) 0.42 1.28 (0.75-2.18) 0.37 0.86 (0.47-1.55) 0.61
High 1.74 (1.22-2.50) 0.002 1.27 (0.86-1.86) 0.23 1.33 (0.66-2.65) 0.43 0.71 (0.33-1.54) 0.39
  Risk of being a victim b
Low Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mid-low 1.17 (0.71-1.92) 0.54 1.16 (0.70-1.91) 0.57 0.91 (0.63-1.32) 0.64 0.88 (0.61-1.28) 0.51
Mid-high 1.11 (0.64-1.95) 0.71 1.02 (0.57-1.82) 0.96 0.98 (0.61-1.56) 0.93 0.83 (0.50-1.37) 0.47
High 2.38 (1.33-4.28) 0.004 1.80 (0.94-3.41) 0.07 1.10 (0.57-2.13) 0.77 0.85 (0.43-1.68) 0.63
  Risk of being a bully-victim b
Low Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
Mid-low 1.21 (0.88-1.65) 0.24 1.08 (0.79-1.48) 0.64 1.71 (0.88-3.32) 0.11 1.36 (0.70-2.65) 0.37
Mid-high 1.73 (1.25-2.40) 0.001 1.31 (0.93-1.85) 0.13 1.95 (0.99-3.83) 0.05 1.21 (0.59-2.46) 0.60
High 2.11 (1.42-3.13) <0.001 1.35 (0.88-2.08) 0.17 3.68 (1.75-7.74) 0.001 1.60 (0.72-3.55) 0.25
  1. Effect estimates are derived from multinomial regression analysis. Peer nomination scores were based on ratings by multiple peers.
  2. aAdjusted for child gender, age, national origin, internalizing and externalizing problems and day-care attendance, and maternal age, parity, education, income, marital status, maternal symptoms of depression, parenting stress. bReference group: 'uninvolved in bullying’ children.