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Table 2 Results; cohort studies

From: Beyond BMI: The “Metabolically healthy obese” phenotype & its association with clinical/subclinical cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality -- a systematic review

Study Subjects (age , male) Median follow-up time (yrs) Outcome Results
Katzmarzyk [19] N = 19,173 10 All-cause mortality CVD mortality MHO = All cause: 25 (3%); CVD: 12 (1%); MHNW = All-cause: 160 (2%); CVD: 38 (1%);
MHO = 1,019 (43, 100%)    •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR (All-cause); NR (CVD)
MHNW = 7,153 (41, 100%)    •AdjustedA HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 0.88 (0.57-1.36) [All-cause]; 1.59 (0.81-3.12) [CVD]
St-Pierre [17] N = 1,824 13 Incident CVD Total = 284 (16%); MHO = NR; MHNW = NR
MHO = 54 (NR, 100%)    •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 512 (NR, 100%)    •AdjustedB HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 1.53 (0.79-3.00)
Meigs [14] N = 2,902 11 Incident CVD MHO = CVD: 19 (8%); MHNW = CVD: 19 (5%);
MHO = 236 (52, 51%)    •Unadjusted RR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 981 (52, 27%)    • AdjustedC RR for MHO (MetS) vs. MHNW = 1.48 (0.87-2.55)[CVD]
    •AdjustedC RR for MHO (IS) vs. MHNW = 1.42 (0.87-2.33) [CVD]
Daly [20] N = 8,397 (60, 87%) 4 CVD mortality MHO = NR (3%); MHNW = NR (2%)
MHO = 839 (NR,NR)    •Unadjusted RR for MHO vs. MHNW = 1.42 (0.76-2.63)
MHNW = NR    •Adjusted RR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
Song [21] N = 25,626 10 Incident CVD MHO = CVD: 77 (3%); MHNW = CVD: 278 (2%)
MHO = 2,925 (54, 0%)    •Unadjusted RR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 12,943 (54, 0%)    •AdjustedD RR for MHO vs. MHNW = 1.05 (0.66-1.66)
    •AdjustedE RR for MHO vs. MHNW = 1.07 (0.68-1.70)
Kuk [13] N = 6,011 9 All-cause mortality Total = 292 (5%); MHO = NR; MHNW = NR
MHO = 78 (NR, NR)    •Unadjusted RR for MHO (MetS) vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 1,461 (NR, NR)    •AdjustedF RR for MHO (MetS) vs. MHNW = 2.80 (1.18-6.65)
    •Unadjusted RR for MHO (IS) vs. MHNW = NR
    •AdjustedF RR for MHO (IS) vs. MHNW = 2.58 (1.00-6.65)
Arnlov [9] N = 1,758 30 All-cause mortality MHO = All-cause: 18 (60%); CVD mortality: 5 (17%) MHNW = All-cause: 391 (44%); CVD mortality: 155 (17%)
MHO = 30 (50, 100%)   CVD mortality •Unadjusted RR for MHO (MetS) vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 891 (50, 100%)   Incident CVD • AdjustedG RR for MHO (MetS) vs. MHNW = 1.65 (1.03-2.66) [All-cause]; 1.20 (0.49-2.93) [CVD mortality]; 1.95 (1.14-3.34) [Incident CVD]
    • AdjustedG RR for MHO (IS) vs. MHNW = 2.04 (1.25-3.32) [All-cause]; 1.80 (0.79-4.08) [CVD mortality]; 1.91 (1.07-3.41) [Incident CVD]
Calori [10] N = 2,011 15 All-cause mortality MHO = All-cause: 7 (16%); CVD: 2 (5%) MHNW = All-cause: 141 (20%); CVD: 58 (8%)
MHO = 43 (55, 28%)   CVD mortality •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 708 (55, 45%)    •AdjustedH HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 0.99 (0.46-2.11) [All-cause]; 0.73 (0.18-3.00) [CVD]
Voulgari [18] N = 550 (60, NR)   Incident heart failure MHO = 43 (9%); MHNW = 17 (16%)
MHO = 96 (NR, NR) 6   •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 0.26 (NR)
MHNW = 109 (NR, NR)    •AdjustedI HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 0.41 (0.10-1.31)
Hosseinpanah [12] N = 6,215 8 Incident CVD MHO = 13 (3%); MHNW = 64 (4%)
MHO = 408 (45, 20%)    •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 1,555 (45, 57%)    •AdjustedJ HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 1.07 (0.59-1.96)
Bobbioni Harsch [23] N = 436 3 CCA-IMT Male Subjects Mean CCA-IMT at Baseline: MHO = 0.63 (0.07) vs. MHNW = 0.59 (0.08) p = NS
MHO = 65 (45, 42%)    Mean CCA-IMT at 3 years: MHO = 0.62 (0.10) vs. MHNW = 0.60 (0.07) p = NS
MHNW = 194 (43, 23%)    Female Subjects Mean CCA-IMT at Baseline: MHO = 0.57 (0.06) vs. MHNW = 0.56 (0.06) p = NS
    Mean CCA-IMT at 3 years: MHO = 0.61 (0.08) vs. MHNW = 0.58 (0.06) p < 0.05
Ogorodnikova [15] N = 17,544 12 Incident CVD Total = 2,439 (14%); MHO = NR; MHNW = NR
  MHO = 1,167 (56, 32%)    •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
MHNW = 4,036 (58, 33%)    •AdjustedK HR for MHO (using various definitions) vs. MHNW = 1.30 (1.03-1.66) [ATP III definition]; 1.17 (0.87-1.57) [ATP-III Expanded]; 1.52 (1.19-1.95) [IS definition]
Hamer [11] N = 22,203 7 All-cause mortality MHO = All-cause: 38 (3%); CVD: 18 (2%);
MHO = 1,160 (51.3, 53%)   CVD mortality MHNW = All-cause: 777 (6%); CVD: 225 (2%)
MHNW = 12,716 (51.9, 45%)    •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
    •AdjustedL HR for MHO v. MHNW = 0.91 (0.64-1.29) [All-cause]; 1.26 (0.74-2.13) [CVD]
Bo [22] N = 1,658 9 All-cause mortality MHO = All-cause: 15 (21%); CVD mortality: 8 (11%); Incident CVD: NR (8%)
MHO = 72 (55, 33%)   CVD mortality MHNW = All-cause: 28 (5%); CVD mortality:7 (1%);Incident CVD: NR (3%)
MHNW = 540 (54, 38%)   Incident CVD •Unadjusted HR for MHO vs. MHNW = NR
    •AdjustedM HR for MHO vs. MHNW = 1.36 (0.64-2.08) [All-cause]; 2.48(1.35-3.61) [CVD mortality]; 2.76 (1.05-7.28) [Incident CVD]
Ortega [16] N = 43,265 14 All-cause mortality MHO = All-cause: 52 (3%); CVD mortality: 17 (1%); Incident CVD: 30 (6%)
MHO = 1,738 (NR, 80%)   CVD mortality MHNW = All-cause: 449 (3%); CVD mortality: 98 (1%); Incident CVD: 261 (4%)
MHNW = 16,002 (NR,NR)   Incident CVD •Unadjusted HR for MHO(referent) vs. MHNW = NR
    •AdjustedN HR for MHO(referent) vs. MHNW = 0.91(0.67-1.24) [All-cause]; 0.73 (0.42-1.28) [ CVD mortality]; 0.78 (0.52-1.18) [Incident CVD]
  1. AAdjusted for age, year of exam, smoking, alcohol use, possible existence of CVD, parental history or premature CVD, cardio-respiratory fitness; BAdjusted for age, smoking, and medication use at baseline; CAdjusted for age, sex, LDL, smoking; DAdjusted for age, treatment assignment, smoking, exercise, alcohol use, total calorie intake, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use, parental history of myocardial infarction before 60 years, BMI; EAdjusted for age, treatment assignment, smoking, exercise, alcohol use, total calorie intake, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use, parental history of myocardial infarction before 60 years, CRP; FAdjusted for age, sex, income, smoking, ethnicity, alcohol use; GAdjusted for age, smoking, and LDL; HAdjusted for age, sex; IAdjusted for age, sex, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and function on echocardiography; JAdjusted for age, gender, exercise, smoking, family history of premature CAD, high total cholesterol; KAdjusted for age, gender, race, smoking, education, alcohol use, and study cohort; LAdjusted for age, sex, smoking physical activity, socioeconomic group, and BMI; MAdjusted for age, sex, fiber intake, exercise, waist circumference; NAdjusted for age, sex, examination year, smoking, alcohol, parental history of CVD, fitness.