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Table 2 Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality among individuals with prevalent sickness absence or disability pension due to an otoaudiological diagnosis in 2005

From: Sickness absence and disability pension due to otoaudiological diagnoses: risk of premature death – a nationwide prospective cohort study

Variable Number of deaths Crude HR (95% CI) Age- and sex- adjusted HR (95% CI)a Multivariable HR (95% CI)b Multivariable HR including hospitalization (95% CI)c
No sick-leave or disability pension 30 066 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Sick leave      
With non-otoaudiological diagnoses 16 443 2.15 (2.11-2.19) 2.06 (2.02-2.10) 2.06 (2.02-2.10) 1.53 (1.50-1.56)
With otoaudiological diagnoses 67 0.99 (0.77-1.26) 0.85 (0.66-1.08) 0.90 (0.70-1.14) 0.75 (0.59-0.95)
 Otologicald 16 1.03 (0.63-1.69) 0.97 (0.60-1.59) 0.99 (0.61-1.62) 0.73 (0.45-1.19)
 Hearinge 19 1.13 (0.72-1.80) 0.97 (0.61-1.54) 1.06 (0.67-1.67) 1.00 (0.63-1.58)
 Vertigof 20 1.01 (0.65-1.58) 0.87 (0.56-1.35) 0.90 (0.58-1.41) 0.68 (0.44-1.06)
 Tinnitusg 13 0.88 (0.51-1.58) 0.70 (0.41-1.22) 0.74 (0.43-1.29) 0.71 (0.41-1.23)
Disability pension      
Non-otoaudiological diagnoses 27 204 6.44 (6.34-6.54) 3.94 (3.88-4.00) 3.46 (3.41-3.52) 2.45 (2.41-2.49)
Otoaudiological diagnoses 272 2.17 (1.93-2.46) 1.28 (1.13-1.45) 1.30 (1.15-1.47) 1.14 (1.01-1.29)
 Otologicald 25 2.40 (1.61-3.58) 1.89 (1.27-2.81) 1.80 (1.20-2.69) 1.56 (1.04-2.33)
 Hearinge 139 1.75 (1.45-2.11) 1.29 (1.07-1.54) 1.31 (1.10-1.57) 1.20 (1.00-1.43)
 Vertigof 48 2.08 (1.56-2.78) 1.33 (1.00-1.77) 1.28 (0.96-1.70) 1.05 (0.79-1.43)
 Tinnitusg 102 1.46 (1.18-1.80) 0.91 (0.74-1.12) 0.95 (0.77-1.16) 0.89 (0.73-1.10)
  1. Note: A number of individuals were included in more than one category.
  2. aAge (20–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64); sex (female, male).
  3. bAdditional adjustments: family situation (married/cohabitant, married/cohabitant with children, single, single with child, child living with parent); type of living area (larger cities, medium-sized cities, smaller places); country of birth (Sweden, Nordic countries, Europe, other part of the world); education (0–9, 10-12, >12 years), including 5 196 998 observations due to missing data on education and/or family situation.
  4. cAdditional adjustment; hospitalization days (total days 2000–2005: 0, 1–4, >4), including 5 196 998 observations due to missing data on education and/or family situation.
  5. dICD10H60-H75, H80, H92, H94, H95.
  6. eH83, H90, H91.
  7. fH81, H82.
  8. gH93.