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Table 4 Prevalence, number of edges, degree and betweenness centrality of diseases by gender and multimorbidity clusters in the population with ≥ 3 chronic conditions

From: Reducing complexity: a visualisation of multimorbidity by combining disease clusters and triads

ADS and pain Prevalence in patients Number of edges (degree centrality) Betweenness centrality
Total Females Males Females Males Females Males
Chronic low back pain 43.7% 47.1% 41.0% 16 (8.0%) 16 (9.2%) 28.4% 32.2%
Joint arthrosis 28.7% 33.6% 24.8% 10 (5.0%) 9 (5.2%) 4.9% 5.7%
Lower limb varicosis 16.4% 22.7% 11.5% 7 (3.5%) 2 (1.1%) 3.1% 0.0%
Prostatic hyperplasia * - 28.1% - 5 (2.9%) - 2.6%
Asthma/COPD 15.3% 14.1% 16.3% 3 (1.5%) 4 (2.3%) 0.4% 0.1%
Depression 12.4% 18.1% 7.8% 10 (5.0%) 2 (1.1%) 11.9% 0.0%
Chronic gastritis/GERD 10.8% 10.8% 10.8% 7 (3.5%) 3 (1.7%) 2.7% 0.1%
Osteoporosis 10.7% 19.7% 3.6% 2 (1.0%) - 0.0% -
Gynaecological problems * 16.6% - 3 (1.5%) - 0.1% -
Allergies 7.3% 8.5% 6.3% 3 (1.5%) - 0.4% -
Insomnia 6.6% 7.6% 5.8% 4 (2.0%) 2 (1.1%) 0.2% 0.0%
Intestinal diverticulosis 6.3% 6.4% 6.2% 2 (1.0%) 2 (1.1%) 0.0% 0.0%
Hemorrhoids 6.1% 5.2% 6.8% 2 (1.0%) 4 (2.3%) 0.0% 0.4%
Somatoform disorders 5.9% 7.7% 4.5% 5 (2.5%) - 1.1% -
Severe hearing loss 4.6% 3.8% 5.2% - 2 (1.1%) - 0.0%
Dizziness 4.2% 5.4% 3.4% 2 (1.0%) - 0.0% -
Anxiety 2.5% 3.7% 1.6% 2 (1.0%) - 0.0% -
Sexual dysfunction * - 4.5% - 2 (1.1%) - 0.0%
Cardiovascular and metabolic        
Hypertension 69.3% 69.3% 69.4% 13 (6.5%) 9 (5.2%) 12.0% 12.0%
Lipid metabolism disorders 47.4% 46.7% 48.0% 11 (5.5%) 8 (4.6%) 5.8% 1.4%
Diabetes mellitus 28.5% 24.9% 31.4% 14 (7.0%) 11 (6.3%) 5.8% 5.0%
Chronic ischemic heart disease 25.7% 18.2% 31.6% 13 (6.5%) 10 (5.7%) 5.1% 2.8%
Hyperuricemia/Gout 18.1% 11.3% 23.5% 11 (5.5%) 12 (6.9%) 5.2% 7.8%
Cardiac arrhythmias 18.0% 15.5% 20.0% 6 (3.0%) 8 (4.6%) 0.2% 4.3%
Atherosclerosis/PAOD 13.7% 10.3% 16.4% 8 (4.0%) 10 (5.7%) 2.6% 5.7%
Obesity 12.4% 13.4% 11.7% 9 (4.5%) 7 (4.0%) 2.2% 3.8%
Liver diseases 12.0% 9.9% 13.7% 7 (3.5%) 8 (4.6%) 2.0% 4.5%
Cardiac insufficiency 9.0% 10.1% 8.1% 8 (4.0%) 8 (4.6%) 1.0% 1.3%
Cerebral ischemia/Chronic stroke 9.0% 7.3% 10.3% 2 (1.0%) 4 (2.3%) 0.0% 0.1%
Neuropathies 8.2% 8.1% 8.2% 7 (3.5%) 6 (3.4%) 4.6% 3.9%
Renal insufficiency 6.5% 4.2% 8.3% 4 (2.0%) 9 (5.2%) 0.0% 2.6%
Cardiac valve disorders 5.7% 5.2% 6.0% 4 (2.0%) 5 (2.9%) 0.1% 2.2%
No multimorbidity pattern        
Severe vision reduction 20.6% 22.0% 19.6% 3 (1.5%) 2 (1.1%) 0.1% 0.0%
Cancers 18.4% 14.8% 21.2% - 2 (1.1%) - 0.0%
Urinary incontinence 5.1% 7.1% 3.5% 2 (1.0%) 2 (1.1%) 0.0% 0.0%
  1. ADS: Anxiety, depression and somatoform disorders; PAOD: peripheral arterial occlusive disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GERD: gastro-esophageal reflux disease; *gender-specific disease.