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Table 2 Triads with a prevalence ≥ 1% and an observed/expected ratio ≥ 2 by multimorbidity clusters in the female population with ≥ 3 chronic conditions (n = 43.632)

From: Reducing complexity: a visualisation of multimorbidity by combining disease clusters and triads

Cardiovascular and metabolic disorders O/E-ratio Prevalence in %
Diabetes mellitus + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 3.8 1.0
Diabetes mellitus + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 3.7 1.4
Hypertension + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Renal insufficiency 3.7 1.2
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac insufficiency 3.7 1.1
Lipid metabolism disorders + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 3.1 1.6
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac insufficiency 3.0 1.4
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Neuropathies 2.9 1.0
Lipid metabolism disorders + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac valve disorders 2.8 1.0
Hypertension + Cardiac arrhythmias + Cardiac valve disorders 2.7 1.5
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.7 1.4
Severe vision reduction + Diabetes mellitus + Neuropathies 2.7 1.2
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Atherosclerosis/PAOD 2.7 1.2
Lipid metabolism disorders + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.6 1.8
Lipid metabolism disorders + Diabetes mellitus + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.3 3.0
Hypertension + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.3 2.3
Hypertension + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 2.3 1.8
Lipid metabolism disorders + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac valve disorders 2.3 1.0
Hypertension + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Renal insufficiency 2.2 1.2
Hypertension + Atherosclerosis/PAOD + Cerebral ischemia/Chronic stroke 2.2 1.2
Lipid metabolism disorders + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Cardiac insufficiency 2.2 1.2
Hypertension + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac insufficiency 2.1 2.6
Lipid metabolism disorders + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Atherosclerosis/PAOD 2.1 1.8
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac arrhythmias 2.1 1.5
Hypertension + Diabetes mellitus + Renal insufficiency 2.1 1.5
Diabetes mellitus + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Obesity 2.1 1.3
Lipid metabolism disorders + Obesity + Liver diseases 2.1 1.3
Lipid metabolism disorders + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Atherosclerosis/PAOD 2.1 1.2
Lipid metabolism disorders + Liver diseases + Atherosclerosis/PAOD 2.1 1.0
Hypertension + Diabetes mellitus + Obesity 2.0 4.6
Lipid metabolism disorders + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.0 1.9
Hypertension + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac valve disorders 2.0 1.3
Severe vision reduction + Diabetes mellitus + Atherosclerosis/PAOD 2.0 1.1
Anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders and pain O/E %
Chronic low back pain + Depression + Somatoform disorders 2.6 1.7
Chronic low back pain + Asthma/COPD + Allergies 2.4 1.4
Chronic low back pain + Intestinal diverticulosis + Chronic gastritis/GERD 2.4 1.1
Chronic low back pain + Depression + Insomnia 2.3 1.5
Joint arthrosis + Depression + Somatoform disorders 2.3 1.1
Chronic low back pain + Depression + Dizziness 2.3 1.0
Joint arthrosis + Depression + Insomnia 2.3 1.0
Chronic low back pain + Somatoform disorders + Chronic gastritis/GERD 2.2 1.2
Chronic low back pain + Lower limb varicosis + Hemorrhoids 2.1 1.2
Chronic low back pain + Gynaecological problems + Urinary incontinence 2.1 1.2
Chronic low back pain + Chronic gastritis/GERD + Insomnia 2.1 1.1
Chronic low back pain + Gynaecological problems + Somatoform disorders 2.0 1.2
Depression + Osteoporosis + Chronic gastritis/GERD 2.0 1.1
Both multimorbidity patterns O/E %
Joint arthrosis + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.5 1.2
Chronic ischemic heart disease + Lower limb varicosis + Cardiac insufficiency 2.5 1.0
Joint arthrosis + Chronic ischemic heart disease + Cardiac insufficiency 2.4 1.5
Chronic low back pain + Hyperuricemia/Gout + Liver diseases 2.3 1.2
Hypertension + Depression + Anxiety 2.2 1.0
Chronic low back pain + Obesity + Hyperuricemia/Gout 2.1 1.5
Diabetes mellitus + Obesity + Lower limb varicosis 2.1 1.5
Joint arthrosis + Diabetes mellitus + Neuropathies 2.1 1.4
Chronic low back pain + Depression + Neuropathies 2.1 1.4
Chronic low back pain + Neuropathies + Chronic gastritis/GERD 2.1 1.2
Joint arthrosis + Obesity + Lower limb varicosis 2.0 2.0
Lipid metabolism disorders + Asthma/COPD + Allergies 2.0 1.1
  1. O/E: observed/expected ratio; PAOD: peripheral arterial occlusive disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease.