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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants

From: Mental wellbeing amongst younger and older migrant workers in comparison to their urban counterparts in Guangzhou city, China: a cross-sectional study

Variable Migrant workers Urban workers χ2 df p Migrant workers aged < = 32 y (“new generation”) Migrant workers aged > 32 y (“old generation”) χ2 df p
(N = 914) (N = 814) (N = 582) (N = 332)
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sex      3.2 1 0.075      0.4 1 0.52
 Male 467 (51.1) 381 (46.8)     302 (51.9) 165 (49.7)    
 Female 447 (48.9) 433 (53.2)     280 (48.1) 167 (50.3)    
Age (mean, SD)* 29.8 (9.1) 35.8 (10.0) 13.2 1655 <0.001        
Age group      114.0 1 <0.001        
  < = 32 years (“new generation”) 582 (63.7) 309 (38.0)           
  > 32 years 332 (36.3) 505 (62.0)           
Education      216.1 2 <0.001      69.6 2 <0.001
 Junior high school or below 469 (51.3) 163 (20.0)     240 (41.2) 229 (69.0)    
 Senior high school 341 (37.3) 386 (47.4)     253 (43.5) 88 (26.5)    
 College or above 104 (11.4) 265 (32.6)     89 (15.3) 15 (4.5)    
Marital status      58.2 2 <0.001      344.2 2 <0.001
 Single 421 (46.1) 230 (28.3)     402 (69.1) 19 (5.7)    
 Married / cohabited 476 (52.1) 565 (69.4)     177 (30.4) 299 (90.1)    
 Other 17 (1.9) 19 (2.3)     3 (0.5) 14 (4.2)    
Job      0.2 1 0.68      61.5 1 <0.001
 Manufacturing 446 (48.8) 389 (47.8)     227 (39.0) 219 (66.0)    
 Non-manufacturing 468 (51.2) 425 (52.2)     355 (61.0) 113 (34.0)    
Working hours per day      43.1 2 <0.001      3.5 2 0.18
  < = 8 550 (60.2) 607 (74.6)     337 (57.9) 213 (64.2)    
 9-11 298 (32.6) 181 (22.2)     200 (34.4) 98 (29.5)    
  > = 12 66 (7.2) 26 (3.2)     45 (7.7) 21 (6.3)    
Working days per week      47.9 2 <0.001      5.3 2 0.07
  < = 5 155 (17.0) 210 (25.8)     98 (16.8) 57 (17.2)    
 6 498 (54.5) 475 (58.4)     332 (57.0) 166 (50.0)    
 7 261 (28.6) 129 (15.8)     152 (26.1) 109 (32.8)    
Monthly income (RMB)      4.7 3 0.19      14.8 3 0.002
  < 1000 52 (5.7) 41 (5.0)     23 (4.0) 29 (8.7)    
 1000-3000 706 (77.2) 624 (76.7)     447 (76.8) 259 (78.0)    
 3000-5000 128 (14.0) 108 (13.3)     95 (16.3) 33 (9.9)    
  > = 5000 28 (3.1) 41 (5.0)     17 (2.9) 11 (3.3)    
Income satisfaction      56.8 4 <0.001      9.3 4 0.055
 Very satisfied 18 (2.0) 14 (1.7)     8 (1.4) 10 (3.0)    
 Satisfied 125 (13.7) 95 (11.7)     69 (11.9) 56 (16.9)    
 Average 566 (61.9) 396 (48.6)     373 (64.1) 193 (58.1)    
 Unsatisfied 176 (19.3) 236 (29.0)     116 (19.9) 60 (18.1)    
 Very unsatisfied 29 (3.2) 73 (9.0)     16 (2.7) 13 (3.9)    
Insurance coverage**      100.4 1 <0.001      8.3 1 0.004
 Yes 688 (75.3) 758 (93.1)     420 (72.2) 268 (80.7)    
 None 226 (24.7) 56 (6.9)     162 (27.8) 64 (19.3)    
SSRS use of support score (mean, SD)* 7.7 (2.0) 8.0 (1.9) 3.2 1726 0.001 7.8 (1.9) 7.5 (2.0) 2.0 912 0.04
Household registration (hukou)             0.0 1 0.94
 Urban         90 (15.5) 52 (15.7)    
 Rural         492 (84.5) 280 (84.3)    
Length of stay in Guangzhou             20.3 1 <0.001
 1 year or more         418 (71.8) 282 (84.9)    
 Less than 1 year         164 (28.2) 50 (15.1)    
Reasons of moving to Guangzhou               
 Wanted to earn more money         301 (51.7) 276 (83.1) 89.6 1 <0.001
 Wanted to learn skills         299 (51.4) 94 (28.3) 45.9 1 <0.001
 Wanted to live in cities         57 (9.8) 21 (6.3) 3.3 1 0.07
 Forced by family         32 (5.5) 34 (10.2) 7.1 1 0.008
  1. SD = Standard deviation. RMB = Renminbi (1 RMB ~ = 0.16 USD). SSRS = Social Support Rating Scale.
  2. *t test used to examine group differences.
  3. **Including private insurance and social security.