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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies in the meta-analysis

From: The association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity: a meta-analysis

Reference Origin Study design Age Sample sizea Definition of feeding patterns Definition of obesity Confounders
Armstrong 2002 [39] Great Britain IHC 39-42 months 32,200 Formula-fed, BF BMI ≥ 95th Gender, birth weight, SES
Bergmann 2003 [40] Germany PC 6 years 480 Bottle-fed, BF BMI ≥ 97th Overweight mother, SESc
Beyerlein
2008 [41]
Germany CS 54-88 months 9,368 Never & ever BF BMI ≥ 97th Weight gain from birth to years of life, maternal BMI, parents’ graduatebc
Burke 2005 [42] Australia PC 1-8 years 1,672 Never, BF ≤ 4 mo, BF ≤ 8 mo, BF ≤ 12 mo, BF > 12 mo BMI ≥ 95th Birth weight, gestational age, ethnicity, sex, maternal BMI, first child, and maternal educationc
Gillman 2001 [43] United States CS 9-14 years 14,377 Mostly or only fed formula, mostly or only BF BMI ≥ 95th Age, sex, birth weight, birth order, Tanner stage, exercises, daily energy intake, mother’s BMI, and household income, dietary restraint, weight cycling, and weight concernsbc
Grummer-Strawn 2004 [44] United States IHC 4 years 12,587 Never, BF < 1 mo, BF ≤ 2.9 mo, BF ≤ 5.9 mo, BF ≤ 11.9 mo, BF ≥ 12 mo BMI ≥ 95th Gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, and mother’s age, education, prepregnancy BMI, and weight gain during pregnancy c
Hawkins 2009 [45] Great Britain PC 3 years 13,172 Never, BF < 4 mo, BF ≥ 4 mo IOTF Birth weight, gender, ethnicity, introduction of solid foods, maternal SES, education, lone motherhood status, age at first live birth, number of children, household income, parental overweight, country, et al.bc
Hediger 2001 [46] United States CS 3-5 years 2,656 Never & ever EBF BMI ≥ 95th Birth weight, race/ethnicity, gender, age group, mother’s BMI, timing of introduction to solid foods
Jwa 2014 [47] Japan PC 1.5-8 years 41,572 Formula feeding, mixed feeding, EBF IOTF Birth weight, having elder sibling(s), maternal educational level, age and total house-hold income at 0.5 years old c
Koletzko 2009 [48] Germany CS 5-6 years 9,357 Never & ever BF BMI ≥ 97th Parental education, low birth weight, own bedroom, frequent consumption of butterc
Kwok 2010 [49] Hong Kong PC 7 years 7,026 Never, partially or EBF <3 mo, EBF ≥ 3 mo IOTF Sex, birth weight, gestational age, birth order, mother’s age at birth, birthplace, number of hospital admissions at 0–3 months, parental education, occupation, incomec
Li 2003 [50] Great Britain CS 4-18 years 2,631 Never, BF ≤ 1 mo, BF ≤ 3 mo, BF ≤ 6 mo, BF ≤ 9 mo, BF > 9 mo BMI ≥ 95th Sex, parent’s BMI, birth weight, and social classc
Liese 2001 [51] Germany CS 9-10 years 2,108 Formula-fed, BF BMI > 90th Age, gender, city, nationality, SES, number of siblingsc
McCrory 2012 [52] Republic of Ireland IHC 9 years 7,798 Never, BF ≤ 4 wk, BF ≤ 8 wk, BF ≤ 12 wk, BF ≤ 25 wk, BF ≥ 26 wk IOTF Dietary quality, exercise, maternal education, gestational age, nationality, weight status, household incomebc
Moschonis 2008 [53] Greek IHC 1-5 years 2,374 Exclusive formula-fed, mixed, EBF BMI ≥ 95th Parental education, weight status, maternal gestational diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption patterns during pregnancy, age at birth, birth rankc
Moss 2014 [54] United States PC 2-4 years 14,150 Never & ever BF BMI ≥ 95th Maternal education, maternal age, maternal race, family poverty, children’s birth weight and gender
Novaes 2011 [55] Brazilian CS 6-10 years 764 Never & ever BF BMI > 2SD Gender, physical education classes, siblings, maternal nutritional state during pregnancybc
O’Challaghan 1997 [56] Australia PC 5 years 2,034 Formula fed, BF ≥ 6 mo, exclusiveness unclear BMI ≥ 94th Birth weight, gander, small for gestational age, feeding problems, sleeplessness, parental BMI, maternal education, household income
Scholtens 2008 [57] Dutch PC 8 years 2,043 Never, BF ≤ 16 wk, BF > 16 wk IOTF Maternal education, overweight, diet at 7 years of agebc
Scott 2012 [58] Australia IHC 9-16 years 2,066 Never, BF < 2 mo, BF < 4 mo, BF < 6 mo, BF ≥ 6 mo IOTF Age, gender, energy intake, physical activity, sleep duration, maternal age, education, ethnicityb
Toschke 2002 [59] Czech Republic CS 6-14 years 33,768 Never & ever BF BMI ≥ 97th Parental education and obesity, birth weight, sports outside school, number of siblingsbc
Twells 2010 [60] Canada CS 4 years 1,026 formula feeding ≥ 3 mo, mixed feeding ≥3 mo, EBF ≥ 3 mo BMI ≥ 95th Birth weight, gender, age, maternal education, whether the baby was preterm or full termc
Van Rossem 2010 [61] United States PC 3 years 884 Never, any BF <6 mo, partial BF ≥ 6 mo, EBF ≥ 6 mo BMI ≥ 95th Age, sex, maternal educational, race, BMI, pregnancy weight gain, birth weight, gestational agec
Von Kries 1999 [62] Germany CS 5-6 years 9,206 Never, EBF ≤ 2 mo, EBF ≤ 5 mo, EBF ≤ 12 mo, BF > 12 mo BMI ≥ 97th Parental education, low birth weight, own bedroom, consumption of butterc
Zhao 2013 [63] China PC 2-8.4 years 1,189 Formula feeding, mixed feeding, EBF Boys’ BMI ≥96.3th Girls’ BMI ≥98th Maternal weight and BMI before pregnancy, maternal weight increase and the level of blood glucose during pregnancy, gender, birth weight, father weight
  1. Abbreviation: IHC indicates historical cohort, PC Prospective cohort, CS Cross-sectional, BMI body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BF breastfeeding, EBF Exclusive breastfeeding, IOTF the International Obesity Task Force, SES socio-economic status.
  2. aThe number of participants included in the analysis with different feeding patterns at last follow-up.
  3. bAdjustment for amount of watching TV for children.
  4. cAdjustment for maternal smoking in pregnancy.