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Table 3 The key characteristics of Indigenous Australian mentoring publications 1983 – 2012

From: The quantity, quality and characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian mentoring literature: a systematic review

Author/publication Year/publication type Type of program Program location Target population No. of participants Program aim Mentoring strategies Publication classification/Quality of study design Outcomes
Dawes & Dawes, 2005 Journal Article Mentoring program for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders Detention Centre Young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men 48 Successful transition of students back into their family and wider communities Mentors trained, including cultural awareness Program description Positive relationships
   Far North Queensland       
       Volunteer mentors   
       Mentee choice of mentors   
      Reduce reoffending behaviour and establish links to further education and employment pathways   
      Matched on interests   
      One-on-one weekly   
      Role-modelling   
      Listening   
      Relationship building activities e.g. chess, fishing   
      Literacy, numeracy; vocationally-oriented curriculum (building and construction, art, horticulture, hospitality)   
      Links to, and support of Education Queensland   
      Funding Education Queensland and Cleveland Education & Training Centre   
Burgess & Dyer, 2009 Journal Article Workplace Mentoring Program University of Newcastle NSW Indigenous Australian university trainees 13 Assist Indigenous job seekers enter the mainstream workforce 12 month Indigenous paid traineeship: combination of study, hands-on-learning and formal and peer mentoring Original Research University Certificates.
Descriptive 12/20 completions: 8/20 completions with university employment; 4/20 completions with external university employment
Strong
Trained mentors (cultural awareness)
One-on-one mentoring
Mentors matched to gender and ethnicity
Voluntary participation
Flexible to the needs of mentees
Partnerships with local Indigenous communities and community organisations
Volunteer external mentors
Psychological, role-modelling, counselling, acceptance/confirmation, friendship, career development
Funding the University of Newcastle
Paase & Adams, 2011 Journal Article Indigenous peer mentoring program Chronic disease prevention Indigenous people living in the inner suburbs of west Melbourne Not reported Developing a mentoring model to improve the health of Indigenous people Consultation with Local Indigenous people Program Description Smoking cessation
Skill acquisition
Melbourne
Voluntary participation (mentees) Increased expression of identity
Built on existing strengths
Tailored to local needs and culture Reduction in cultural isolation
Local knowledge linked with existing services and programs
Partnerships with organisations
Group mentoring
Indigenous program team, peer mentors and peers locally employed
Formal & informal mentoring
Volunteer mentors
Trained peer mentors (as mentors and skill development); ongoing support
Matched cultural/socio-economic background and/or interests
Tribal Warriors, 2011 Journal Article Post-release mentoring program for young Aboriginal offenders Redfern Community Aboriginal young people (7-25 years) recently released from correctional centres 50 participants Encourage education, self-respect and independence (post-release) for young Aboriginal offenders Mentors walk with mentees through many aspects of life e.g. appointments etc. Program Description Developed a mentoring certificate course.Decreased re-offending including decrease of 80% in men charged with robbery
Redfern, NSW
One-on-one mentoring
Elder leadership
Elder and police collaboration
Police-mentee and police-community liaison
Improved relationships between police and the Aboriginal community
Paid mentors
Mentors trained, including cultural awareness
Training, employment and education opportunities e.g. Certified maritime training
Health and wellbeing training including family violence, substance abuse, fitness
Cultural participation
Funded by Department of Community Services; Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs; Centrelink; Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
Nasir, 2008 Conference Paper Mentoring program for Indigenous apprentices Group training organisation – public sector Not reported Indigenous apprentices 10 Indigenous apprentices, 4 field officers, 2 group training organisation managers, 3 host employer supervisors and 1 trainer To improve the recruitment, retention and completion of apprenticeships by Indigenous Australians Mentors recruited into the organisation Original research Critiqued for being ineffective
Descriptive
Untrained, unsupported mentors Weak
Appointed mentors
Mentors have dual roles in the organisation
One-on-one mentoring
Funding local training organisation
MacCallum, Beltman & Palmer, 2005 Conference Paper National Indigenous Mentoring Pilots Project Secondary Schools; detention centres; residential schools 53 sites across Australia Indigenous high school students 53 sites 483 mentees 332 mentors To trial mentoring approaches to improve literacy, numeracy, attendance and participation of high school students. One-on-one mentoring Original Research Descriptive Strong Mentees: Increased self-confidence and self-esteem; school attendance; retention; and participation in classroom tasks
Trained volunteer mentors
1 hour per week
Exposure to employment pathways, community work and further education
To raise students’ expectations of success and the expectations of their parents and teachers
Enhanced valuing of school and connections between school and work
Awards Celebrations
Life skills
Role-modelling
Identity building Increased ability to solve personal and social problems
Motivational speakers
Social activities- fishing, gardening, dance, art, sport, camps Development of leadership and life skills
Reconciliatory approach
Improved relationships with, and between peers, teachers and family members
Vocational educational experiences
Recognition of Indigeneity
Improved literacy and numeracy
Respectful relationships
Mentor humour Mentors: improved knowledge of Indigenous culture and youth issues; development of strong relationships with students; enhanced personal development and self-esteem.
Involvement of families and communities
Genealogy program
Networking for employment
Funding Department of Education, Science & Training
School and Community: enhanced links between school and community; increased involved of families in school; awareness of, and access to local Indigenous role-models; development of inter-school relationships; positive contact between Indigenous and non-Indigenous families.
Stacey, 2004 Report Panyappi Indigenous youth mentoring service Indigenous Youth Mentoring Program South Australia Indigenous youth ‘at-risk’ at of being a victim of crime or engaging in offending behaviour. 30 Urban (inner city) Indigenous youth 10-17 years To intervene in pathways of offending behaviour Works from a development perspective Original Research Marked change in offending behaviour
Family-inclusive approach Descriptive
To decrease each young participant’s contact with the juvenile justice system and/or agencies associated with this system. Attitude shift
Accredited trained paid mentors including cultural awareness
Strong
Decreased frequency of offending
Mentor support and supervision
Increased self-belief, and personal and cultural identity
To promote self-discovery and self-determination by young people participating in the program their family and wider community Formal longer-term mentoring
Referrals but voluntary
participation Reduced stress
Cultural fit Decreased contact with the juvenile justice system
Developing a positive, caring and non-
judgemental relationship Reduced formal cautions, court orders, family conferences and convictions
One-on-one intensive support – 15-20 hrs/wk
Building networks of support around the individual – schools, youth health, welfare
Services enabled to work better with young people and their families
Support of external agencies
Group strategies
Mentoring beyond the trouble period
Role-modelling
Accompanying mentees to appointments
Access to education, training and recreation
Genealogy program
Mentoring timeframe 2-17 months
Art program
Encouraging relationships with family, parents and community
Enabling opportunities to experience success
Tutoring
Life skills
Providing a safe environment
Funding Attorney Generals Department
Brereton &Taufatofua, 2010 Report Indigenous Australian Mentoring Programs in employment Workplaces Australia-wide Indigenous Australians Not relevant Overview of Indigenous mentoring programs across Australia aimed at increasing participation in employment Tailored to individual needs Review Descriptive Only ‘expected’ outcomes reported
Flexibility of the workplace
Resources, training and support for the mentor and mentee
Cultural awareness training for Indigenous and non-Indigenous mentors
Acknowledging difference
Incorporating and valuing local knowledge
Experiential learning
Formal evaluation for program improvement
Role-modelling
Links to support resources and services
Appropriate empathy and listening skills
Accountability and reliability of mentors and mentees
Developing rapport and building trust
Setting and reaching goals for the mentee
Bridging closure to the relationship
Funding not relevant
Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience, 2009 Report Youth Mentoring into Education Australian secondary schools Indigenous secondary school students Years 9-12 4 universities; 13 staff; 325 mentees; 500 mentors; 30 high schools Increase Year 10 & 12 progression rates One-on-one mentoring Case Report Increases across progressions for Years 9-10 (88% AIME compared to 81% National); Years 10-11 (81% AIME compared to 59% National); Years 11-12 (92% AIME compared to 63% National)
Descriptive
Increase Year 12 to university progression Voluntary participation
East Coast of Australia
Voluntary mentors
Work with 6000 Indigenous secondary school students by 2020
1 hour/wk for17 week intensive program
Learning Centres
Community & University Engagement
Increases Year 12 completion (73% AIME compared 60% National)
Role-models
Shared social activities
Increases Year 12 to university (38% AIME compared to 1.25% National)
Funding partners (Universities), philanthropic organisations, in-kind support, fund-raising
Linking in mentees family and community
Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience, 2010 Report Youth Mentoring into Education Australian secondary schools East Coast of Australia Indigenous secondary school students Years 9-12 7 universities; 388 mentees Increase Year 10 & 12 progression rates One-on-one mentoring Case Report Descriptive Increases across progressions for Years 9-10 (88% AIME compared to 91.5% National); Years 10-11 (87% AIME compared to 74% National); Years 11-12 (86% AIME compared to
Increase Year 12 to university progression
Work with 6000 Indigenous secondary school students by 2020
  Voluntary participation
Voluntary mentors
1 hour/wk for17 week
intensive program
Learning Centres
66.7% National) Increases Year 12 completion (100% AIME compared 71.8% National)
Community & University Engagement
Role-models
Shared social activities Increases Year 12 to university (38% AIME compared to 10% National)
Funding partners (Universities), philanthropic organisations, in-kind support, fund-raising
Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience, 2011 Report Youth Mentoring into Education Australian secondary schools Indigenous secondary school students Years 9-12 10 universities;30 staff; 566 mentees Increase Year 10 & 12 progression rates One-on-one mentoring Case Report Descriptive  
Voluntary participation
Increase Year 12 to university progression Voluntary mentors
East Coast of Australia
Work with 6000 Indigenous secondary school students by 2020 1 hour/wk for17 week intensive program
Learning Centres
Community & University Engagement
Role-models
Shared social activities
Funding partners (Universities), philanthropic organisations, in-kind support, fund-raising
Department of Local Government, 1999 Report Aboriginal Political Mentoring Program Local Councils Local Aboriginal community members 27 participants Encourage Aboriginal people to run for local elections Voluntary participation by mentees but selection process Original Research Not able to be definitively assessed: Increased political participation - 11/27 ran for election and 2 were elected
Kyogle Area NSW
Intervention Research
Educate the Aboriginal community on the local government process and the importance of Aboriginal input into local government
Strong
Mentors - existing relationships with mentee and Aboriginal community; understanding of Aboriginal culture; vast experience of local government and supervision Increases across progressions for Years 9-10 (97% AIME compared to 91.5% National); Years 10-11 (92.6% AIME compared to 74% National); Years 11-12 (79%
AIME compared to 66.7% National)
Mutual matching
One-on-one mentoring but multiple mentors
Increases Year 12 completion (87.5% AIME compared 71.8% National)
Supported in political activities and social support Increases Year 12 to university (35.7% AIME compared to 10% National)
6 months + relationship
Funding Department of Local Government NSW
PASS Australia 2012 Web Page Mentoring Program for Indigenous students in years 10, 11 and 12 Secondary Schools Queensland Indigenous secondary school students 525 students in 2011 To improve the lives of Indigenous Youth, through Education, Leadership and Mentoring, by providing them with the tools to become strong community leaders for the future Group and one-on-one mentoring Program Description Program graduations
Voluntary participation (mentees) Paid mentors Vocational qualification - TAFE Certificates
1 day per week for 2 years
Indigenous and non-Indigenous mentors
Paid employment
Exposure to employment pathways, community work and further education
6-9 Merit points towards School Certificate
Cultural program
Sports program
Career Pathways Program
Leadership
Education to employment transitioning
Industry work experience
Industry, community and school partners
Awards Celebrations
Funding Department of Education, Employment & Workplace Relations
New South Wales Government, 2010 Web Page Workplace Mentoring Program for Aboriginal people working in the NSW public sector Public Sector NSW Aboriginal people working in the NSW public sector Not relevant Mentoring guidelines to improve employment, training and career development opportunities for Aboriginal people in the NSW public sector Modelling desirable behaviours and attitudes Program Description Not relevant
One-on-one mentoring
Helping the mentee understand the values of the agency
Actively listening to the mentee
Sharing your own relevant stories and experiences
Helping the mentee to identify their goals
Providing opportunities for learning and reflection
Understanding of cultural obligations
Encouraging the mentee to develop new skills
Offering career advice
Guiding the mentee to achieve objectives
Providing insights into the culture of the agency
Offering constructive feedback; and providing regular encouragement
Funding NSW Government
Show Me The Way Mentoring 2011 Web Page Online mentoring program for Indigenous students Schools NSW Young Indigenous students in school or in school-based traineeships 14 students in 2010 To encourage Indigenous students to stay at school and go on to tertiary education. Program matched to government policy Program Description New program - not reported
     29 school-based trainees 2011   Technology-driven mentoring strategies – online face-to-face mentoring contact; development of career videos   
      To self-empower Indigenous students to understand what's involved in developing a career path in conjunction with learning/mentoring partners with real world experience.    
       Mentor training including cultural training   
       Voluntary participation (mentors/mentees)   
       Mentor competency tested   
       30 mins/fortnight minimum participation   
       Video workshops (careers and trades)   
       One-on-one mentoring   
       Role-modelling   
       Matched mentoring to student needs   
       Tailored to Indigenous youth   
       Flexibility that meets the needs of individual students   
       Minimal in-person face-to-face meeting   
       Face-to-face literacy, numeracy and media literacy approaches; and training for students, teachers and corporate learning partners   
       Professional program development   
       Participation at school and home   
       Partnerships students, school, staff and community   
       Laptops supplied to students for access and engagement   
       Implemented discretely, and in conjunction with existing school programs   
       Continuous quality improvement strategies embedded in the program   
       Reward system for participation   
       Funding – charitable organisation and corporate partners