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Table 3 Predictive values of social and behavioral factors on nondaily smoking at T2 and T3 (n = 942)

From: Nondaily smoking: a population-based, longitudinal study of stability and predictors

  Nondaily smoking versus nonsmoking Nondaily smoking versus daily smoking without nicotine dependence Nondaily smoking versus daily smoking with nicotine dependence
T2 (mean age 20.7 years)    
Predictors at previous time points Multiple model Multiple model adjusted for T1 smoking Multiple model Multiple model adjusted for T1 smoking Multiple model Multiple model adjusted for T1 smoking
School grades (T1)    1.69 (1.04–2.75)   2.57 (1.54–4.28) 2.15 (1.26–3.66)
Participants’ education (T2)    1.90 (1.13–3.19) 1.87 (1.11–3.17)   
Parental alcohol intoxication (T1)      0.83 (0.73–0.94) 0.83 (0.73–0.94)
Unorganized leisure time (T1) 1.06 (1.01–1.12)   0.91 (0.86–0.97) 0.93 (0.88–0.99) 0.90 (0.85–0.95) 0.91 (0.85–0.97)
Smoking status (T1)    
  Nonsmokers Reference group Reference group Reference group
  Nondaily smokers 6.50 (3.53–11.98)   
  Daily smokers   0.22 (0.08–0.60) 0.25 (0.09–0.68)
T3 (mean age 26.7 years)    
Predictors at previous time points Multiple model Multiple model adjusted for T2 smoking Multiple model Multiple model adjusted for T2 smoking Multiple model Multiple model adjusted for T2 smoking
Participants’ education (T2)    1.91 (1.13–3.21)   2.19 (1.27–3.77)  
Smoking friends (T2) 2.04 (1.27–3.27)     0.25 (0.11–0.58)  
Unorganized leisure time (T1) 1.09 (1.03–1.15) 1.06 (1.00–1.12) 0.93 (0.88–0.99)    
Smoking status (T2)    
  Nonsmokers Reference group Reference group Reference group
  Nondaily smokers 8.41 (4.72–14.97)   5.11 (1.29–20.20)
  DS FTND < 4 7.26 (3.73–14.16) 0.33 (0.15–0.73)  
  DS FTND ≥ 4 9.74 (3.83–24.77) 0.30 (0.11–0.79) 0.11 (0.04–0.31)
  1. All values are odds ratios (95% confidence interval) resulted from multiple multinomial regression analyses. Models include only variables significantly predicting nondaily smoking, adjusted for age and gender and mutually for all included variables. Excluded variables at T2: parental education, high school dropout, parental smoking, smoking friends and parental control. Excluded variables at T3: parental education, school grades, parental smoking, parental drunkenness, and parental control.