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Table 3 Multivariate associations (using stepwise backward and forward regression p< .05) between participant characteristics and the onset of cannabis use

From: Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

Variable categories and variables Separate model for each variable category Overall modela,b
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Demographics c     
Means of subsistence: own person (Ref.)     
 Own person and others persons or institutions 1.75 (1.12-2.72) .01 1.87 (1.16-3.00) .01
 Other persons or institutions 2.27 (1.47-3.52) <.01 2.68 (1.66-4.34) <.01
Having no siblings (Ref.)     
 One or two siblings 2.86 (1.16-7.08) .02 3.14 (1.24-7.95) .02
 Three or more siblings 2.53 (0.97-6.61) .06 3.04 (1.12-8.16) .03
Religion and religiosity d     
Atheist (Ref.)     
 Agnostic 0.75 (0.47-1.19) .22 0.64 (0.39-1.06) .09
 Unsure what to think about god 1.02 (0.65-1.61) .93 1.02 (0.63-1.65) .94
 Belief in god but not practicing 0.83 (0.58-1.19) .32 0.78 (0.53-1.17) .23
 Belief in god and practicing 0.44 (0.25-0.75) <.01 0.54 (0.31-0.96) .04
Health e     
Depression (MDI, scale 0–50) 1.03 (1.01-1.04) <.01 1.03 (1.01-1.05) <.01
No anti-social personality disorder (Ref.)     
 Anti-social personality disorder 1.87 (1.25-2.80) <.01   
Social context f     
No parental divorce before the age of 18 (Ref.)     
 Parental divorce before the age of 18 1.89 (1.37-2.61) <.01 2.03 (1.44-2.87) .04
Lower educational level of the father (Ref.)     
 Higher educational level of the father 1.38 (1.03-1.85) .03   
Lower parental knowledge of peers and the whereabouts at the age of 15 (Ref.)     
 Higher parental knowledge of peers and the whereabouts at the age of 15 0.69 (0.49-0.97) .03 0.69 (0.48-0.99) <.01
Peer pressure (PPI total score, range -3 - +3) 2.08 (1.43-3.04) <.01 1.56 (1.03-2.36) .04
Substance use g     
No cigarette use in the previous 12 months (Ref.)     
 Very low nicotine dependence (FTND) 2.77 (2.01-3.82) <.01 2.60 (1.83-3.69) <.01
 Low, moderate or high nicotine dependence (FTND) 1.13 (0.54-2.37) .74 1.31 (0.60-2.84) .50
Personality h     
Sensation seeking (BSSS total score, range 1–5) 1.71 (1.44-2.04) <.01 1.55 (1.28-1.89) <.01
Anxiety (ZKPQ, subscale, range 0–10) 1.09 (1.02-1.17) .02   
Military training school     
  1. Notes: aThe overall model resulted from backward and forward selection of the variables included in the separate models for each variable category. b R 2 = .11; c R 2 = .02; d R 2 = .01; e R 2 = .02; f R 2 = .04; g R 2 = .03; h R 2 = .04. MDI = Major Depressive Inventory; FTND = Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; BSSS = Brief Sensation Seeking Scale; ZKPQ = Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire; PPI = Peer Pressure Inventory.