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Table 5 The controlled direct effects (CDE) expressed as risk ratios (RRs) of childhood financial conditions, mothers’ education, and fathers’ education on measures of subjective health and wellbeing by respondents’ education

From: Role of respondents’ education as a mediator and moderator in the association between childhood socio-economic status and later health and wellbeing

Measures of subjective health and wellbeing CSES Low respondents’ education High respondents’ education
   CDE (RR) 95% CI CDE (RR) 95% CI
   Men (n = 3986)
   High 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) -
Composite EQ-5D Childhood financial condition Low 1.18a 1.09-1.29 1.28a 1.13-1.44
Mothers’ Education Low 0.94b 0.82-1.07 1.09b 0.95-1.25
Fathers’ Education Low 1.03c 0.92-1.14 1.03c 0.91-1.17
EQ-5D health dimensions       
- Mobility Childhood financial condition Low 1.24a 0.97-1.59 1.12a 0.73-1.71
Mothers’ Education Low 0.91b 0.62-1.33 1.04b 0.69-1.58
Fathers’ Education Low 0.67c 0.51-0.89 0.82c 0.55-1.22
- Self-care Childhood financial condition Low 1.63a 0.88-3.01 2.62a 0.95-7.19
Mothers’ Education Low 0.55b 0.24-1.28 3.45b 0.76-15.74
Fathers’ Education Low 0.45c 0.23-0.88 0.95c 0.33-2.74
- Usual activities Childhood financial condition Low 1.56a 1.23-1.98 0.99a 0.65-1.53
Mothers’ Education Low 1.16b 0.75-1.80 1.13b 0.72-1.76
Fathers’ Education Low 1.04c 0.77-1.42 0.90c 0.60-1.35
- Pain/discomfort Childhood financial condition Low 1.15a 1.05-1.27 1.28a 1.11-1.47
Mothers’ Education Low 0.94b 0.81-1.10 1.13b 0.96-1.32
Fathers’ Education Low 1.04c 0.93-1.17 1.08c 0.94-1.25
- Anxiety/depression Childhood financial condition Low 1.77a 1.40-2.24 2.02a 1.54-2.64
Mothers’ Education Low 0.99b 0.69-1.45 0.89b 0.66-1.20
Fathers’ Education Low 1.20c 0.90-1.61 0.85c 0.64-1.14
Self-rated health Childhood financial condition Low 1.30a 1.16-1.46 1.33a 1.11-1.60
Mothers’ Education Low 0.92b 0.76-1.11 1.36b 1.10-1.68
Fathers’ Education Low 0.98c 0.85-1.13 0.97c 0.81-1.17
Age-comparative self-rated health b Childhood financial condition Low 1.06a 1.01-1.12 1.13a 1.03-1.23
Mothers’ Education Low 1.04b 0.96-1.13 1.13b 1.02-1.24
Fathers’ Education Low 1.04c 0.98-1.11 1.03c 0.95-1.13
Subjective wellbeing Childhood financial condition Low 1.20a 1.13-1.28 1.29a 1.19-1.40
Mothers’ Education Low 0.95b 0.86-1.04 1.13b 1.02-1.24
Fathers’ Education Low 0.96c 0.90-1.03 1.04c 0.95-1.14
   Women (n = 3974)
   High 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) -
Composite EQ-5D Childhood financial condition Low 1.19a 0.13-1.25 1.11a 0.99-1.24
Mothers’ Education Low 1.02b 0.92-1.13 1.20b 1.07-1.34
Fathers’ Education Low 0.93c 0.87-0.99 1.04c 0.94-1.16
EQ-5D health dimensions       
- Mobility Childhood financial condition Low 1.91a 1.58-2.30 1.68a 1.16-2.43
Mothers’ Education Low 0.85b 0.61-1.18 1.27b 0.87-1.86
Fathers’ Education Low 0.73c 0.58-0.93 0.97c 0.68-1.39
- Self-care Childhood financial condition Low 2.24a 1.40-3.57 1.31a 0.48-3.56
Mothers’ Education Low 0.61b 0.28-1.35 0.71b 0.29-1.70
Fathers’ Education Low 0.84c 0.45-1.54 0.82c 0.33-2.01
- Usual activities Childhood financial condition Low 1.79a 1.54-2.09 1.46a 1.08-1.96
Mothers’ Education Low 0.95b 0.72-1.25 1.11b 0.84-1.48
Fathers’ Education Low 0.91c 0.75-1.11 0.85c 0.65-1.13
- Pain/discomfort Childhood financial condition Low 1.16a 1.09-1.24 1.08a 0.94-1.23
Mothers’ Education Low 1.04b 0.93-1.17 1.21b 1.07-1.37
Fathers’ Education Low 0.91c 0.84-0.98 1.06c 0.94-1.19
- Anxiety/depression Childhood financial condition Low 1.63a 1.40-1.91 1.38a 1.07-1.78
Mothers’ Education Low 1.37b 1.02-1.85 1.39b 1.09-1.78
Fathers’ Education Low 0.84c 0.70-1.01 0.84c 0.66-1.06
Self-rated health Childhood financial condition Low 1.44a 1.31-1.60 1.48a 1.19-1.84
Mothers’ Education Low 1.07b 0.87-1.32 0.96b 0.77-1.19
Fathers’ Education Low 1.07c 0.93-1.22 1.12c 0.91-1.38
Age-comparative self-rated health Childhood financial condition Low 1.04a 1.00-1.09 1.01a 0.93-1.10
Mothers’ Education Low 0.99b 0.95-1.05 1.08b 1.01-1.17
Fathers’ Education Low 0.99c 0.95-1.03 1.05c 0.98-1.13
Subjective wellbeing Childhood financial condition Low 1.28a 1.20-1.36 1.23a 1.11-1.35
Mothers’ Education Low 1.03b 0.92-1.15 1.04b 0.95-1.14
Fathers’ Education Low 0.93c 0.86-1.00 0.97c 0.89-1.07
  1. aAdjusted for age, spouse’s education, mothers’ education, and fathers’ education. bAdjusted for age, spouse’s education, childhood financial conditions, and fathers’ education. cAdjusted for age, spouse’s education, childhood financial conditions, and mothers’ education.
  2. CDE: Controlled direct effects. CI: confidence interval.