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Table 4 The natural direct effects (NDE), natural indirect effects (NIE: mediated by respondents’ education) and marginal total effects (MTE) expressed as risk ratios (RRs) of parental education on measures of subjective health and wellbeing

From: Role of respondents’ education as a mediator and moderator in the association between childhood socio-economic status and later health and wellbeing

Measures of subjective health and wellbeing   Parental education NDE (RR) 95% CI NIE (RR) 95% CI MTE (RR) 95% CI
   Men (n = 3986)
   High (ref) 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) -
Composite EQ-5D Mothers’ Education Low 1.02a 0.92-1.13 1.02a 1.01-1.04 1.04a 0.94-1.15
Fathers’ Education Low 1.03b 0.94-1.12 1.02b 1.01-1.04 1.05b 0.96-1.15
EQ-5D health dimensions         
- Mobility Mothers’ Education Low 0.96a 0.72-1.30 1.09a 1.04-1.15 1.05a 0.78-1.42
Fathers’ Education Low 0.73b 0.57-0.93 1.06b 1.02-1.11 0.77b 0.61-0.99
- Self-care Mothers’ Education Low 0.93a 0.43-2.01 1.06a 0.95-1.18 0.99a 0.46-2.12
Fathers’ Education Low 0.59b 0.32-1.08 1.05b 0.95-1.15 0.61b 0.34-1.12
- Usual activities Mothers’ Education Low 1.15a 0.82-1.60 1.08a 1.03-1.14 1.24a 0.89-1.73
Fathers’ Education Low 0.98b 0.75-1.27 1.07b 1.03-1.12 1.05b 0.81-1.36
- Pain/discomfort Mothers’ Education Low 1.03a 0.92-1.16 1.03a 1.01-1.05 1.06a 0.95-1.20
Fathers’ Education Low 1.06b 0.96-1.17 1.03b 1.01-1.04 1.09b 0.99-1.20
- Anxiety/depression Mothers’ Education Low 0.93a 0.72-1.20 1.00a 0.96-1.03 0.93a 0.72-1.19
Fathers’ Education Low 0.99b 0.80-1.24 1.01b 0.98-1.04 1.00b 0.81-1.25
Self-rated health Mothers’ Education Low 1.11a 0.95-1.29 1.03a 1.01-1.06 1.14a 0.98-1.33
Fathers’ Education Low 0.98b 0.86-1.10 1.04b 1.02-1.06 1.01b 0.90-1.14
Age-comparative self-rated health Mothers’ Education Low 1.09a 1.01-1.16 1.03a 1.01-1.04 1.11a 1.04-1.19
Fathers’ Education Low 1.04b 0.98-1.10 1.02b 1.01-1.03 1.06b 1.01-1.12
Subjective wellbeing Mothers’ Education Low 1.04a 0.97-1.12 1.01a 1.01-1.02 1.05a 0.98-1.13
Fathers’ Education Low 1.00b 0.94-1.06 1.01b 1.00-1.02 1.01b 0.95-1.07
   Women (n = 3974)
   High (ref) 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) - 1.00 (ref) -
Composite EQ-5D Mothers’ Education Low 1.10a 1.02-1.19 1.03a 1.02-1.05 1.14a 1.05-1.23
  Fathers’ Education Low 0.98b 0.92-1.04 1.03b 1.02-1.05 1.01b 0.95-1.07
EQ-5D health dimensions         
- Mobility Mothers’ Education Low 1.00a 0.77-1.30 1.05a 1.01-1.10 1.05a 0.81-1.37
  Fathers’ Education Low 0.83b 0.67-1.02 1.05b 0.99-1.10 0.86b 0.70-1.06
- Self-care Mothers’ Education Low 0.65a 0.35-1.22 1.06a 0.95-1.18 0.69a 0.37-1.28
  Fathers’ Education Low 0.83b 0.48-1.44 1.07b 0.94-1.21 0.88b 0.52-1.52
- Usual activities Mothers’ Education Low 1.02a 0.82-1.25 1.05a 1.01-1.09 1.07a 0.86-1.32
  Fathers’ Education Low 0.88b 0.74-1.05 1.07b 1.02-1.11 0.94b 0.80-1.11
- Pain/discomfort Mothers’ Education Low 1.12a 1.03-1.22 1.04a 1.02-1.06 1.16a 1.07-1.27
  Fathers’ Education Low 0.97b 0.91-1.04 1.04b 1.02-1.05 1.01b 0.94-1.08
- Anxiety/depression Mothers’ Education Low 1.38a 1.13-1.69 1.05a 1.02-1.08 1.45a 1.18-1.78
  Fathers’ Education Low 0.85b 0.72-0.98 1.05b 1.02-1.09 0.89b 0.76-1.03
Self-rated health Mothers’ Education Low 1.02a 0.87-1.19 1.08a 1.05-1.12 1.10a 0.94-1.29
  Fathers’ Education Low 1.09b 0.96-1.23 1.08b 1.04-1.11 1.17b 1.03-1.32
Age-comparative self-rated health Mothers’ Education Low 1.04a 0.99-1.09 1.02a 1.01-1.03 1.06a 1.01-1.11
Fathers’ Education Low 1.02b 0.98-1.06 1.02b 1.01-1.03 1.04b 1.00-1.08
Subjective wellbeing Mothers’ Education Low 1.04a 0.96-1.12 1.01a 0.99-1.02 1.04a 0.96-1.13
Fathers’ Education Low 0.95b 0.89-1.01 1.00b 0.99-1.02 0.95b 0.90-1.01
  1. aAdjusted for age, spouse’s education, childhood financial conditions, and fathers’ education. bAdjusted for age, spouse’s education, childhood financial conditions, and mothers’ education.
  2. NDE: Natural direct effects. NIE: Natural indirect effects. MTE: Marginal total effects. CI: confidence interval.