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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios for metabolically healthy obesity (MHO)* according to quartiles of various obesity indicators and change in MHO percentage, using various obesity indicators divided into quartiles

From: Utility of obesity indicators for metabolically healthy obesity: an observational study using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010)

  BMI WC ASM FAT WHtR
  % (SE) OR (95% CI) % (SE) OR (95% CI) % (SE) OR (95% CI) % (SE) OR (95% CI) % (SE) OR (95% CI)
Men           
Q1 69.1 (2.4) ref. 79.0 (2.1) ref. 35.1 (2.7) ref. 61.1 (2.4) ref. 78.4 (2.0) ref.
Q2 54.1 (2.8) 0.77 (0.56,1.05) 59.0 (2.5) 0.71 (0.48,1.05) 51.7 (2.5) 0.99 (0.74,1.32) 49.4 (2.8) 0.90 (0.66,1.22) 56.4 (2.8) 0.56 (0.39,0.81)
Q3 48.1 (2.9) 0.43 (0.31,0.60) 32.7 (2.8) 0.43 (0.31,0.59) 53.0 (2.9) 1.09 (0.82,1.45) 50.0 (2.9) 1.10 (0.82,1.48) 36.4 (2.8) 0.28 (0.19,0.41)
Q4 33.0 (2.4) 0.39 (0.29,0.54) 28.4 (2.4) 0.13 (0.09,0.19) 62.0 (2.6) 1.28 (0.96,1.72) 43.6 (2.8) 0.96 (0.71,1.32) 23.6 (2.4) 0.12 (0.08,0.17)
p for trend <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001
Women           
Q1 53.0 (2.9) ref. 70.0 (2.4) ref. 38.3 (2.8) ref. 43.0 (2.7) ref. 72.9 (2.4) ref.
Q2 50.6 (2.7) 0.61 (0.43,0.87) 42.4 (2.7) 0.68 (0.45,1.05) 42.2 (2.7) 0.88 (0.63,1.23) 39.8 (2.6) 0.92 (0.66,1.27) 42.5 (2.9) 0.61 (0.42,0.90)
Q3 36.7 (2.7) 0.32 (0.23,0.46) 30.6 (2.7) 0.46 (0.32,0.64) 44.7 (2.9) 0.89 (0.64,1.25) 44.8 (2.6) 1.02 (0.76,1.37) 29.7 (2.8) 0.40 (0.28,0.59)
Q4 30.7 (2.7) 0.32 (0.22,0.44) 23.9 (2.5) 0.17 (0.12,0.24) 44.4 (2.5) 0.90 (0.66,1.22) 42.1 (2.9) 0.97 (0.71,1.34) 18.9 (2.1) 0.14 (0.10,0.20)
p for trend <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 0.076 0.5331 0.8551 0.9641 <.001 <.0001
  1. *MHO was defined as a person who satisfies 2 or fewer criteria of metabolic syndrome. Categorical variables %(SE), analyzed by CHI-Square test.
  2. Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 mean first to fourth quartile respectively. Adjusted by age, smoking, drinking, and physical activity.
  3. BMI, body mass index (kg/m2); WC waist circumference (cm); ASM, weight adjusted appendicular skeletal mass; FAT total body fat (%); WHtR, waist to height ratio.