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Table 4 Socio-demographic factors, recent indicators of behavioural risk and perceptions of HIV associated with recent (last 6 months) and repeated testing for HIV amongst those ever testing (N = 789)

From: Characteristics of sexually experienced HIV testers aged 18 to 32 in rural South Africa: baseline results from a community-based trial, NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043)

Characteristic Recent Test % (n = 296) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR* (95% CI) LRT p value Repeated % (n = 417) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR** (95% CI) LRT p value
Demographics Gender Male 21 0.94 (0.66-1.34) 1.19 (0.81-1.74) <0.001 18 0.68 (0.48-0.95) 0.68 (0.48-0.97) 0.02
   Female 79 1 1   82 1 1  
  Age 18-20 years 29 1 1 0.10 26 1 1  
   21-24 years 30 0.79 (0.53-1.16) 0.77 (0.51-1.18)   28 0.82 (0.56-1.21) 0.89 (0.60-1.34)  
   25-28 years 20 0.59 (0.38-0.89) 0.61 (0.38-0.98)   23 0.85 (0.56-1.28) 0.81 (0.52-1.24)  
   29-32 years 21 0.60 (0.39-0.90) 0.61 (0.38-0.97)   24 0.80 (0.54-1.20) 0.76 (0.50-1.16)  
  Socio-economic status Low 37 0.99 (0.72-1.35)    41 1.51 (1.11-2.05) 1.49 (1.10-2.02) 0.01
  Medium 50 1    46 1 1  
  High 13 1.07 (0.67-1.69)    13 1.57 (0.999-2.47) 1.61 (1.02-2.54)  
  Years of education < 7 years 11 1.32 (0.81-2.15)    12 1.51 (0.92-2.48)   
  8-10 years 29 1.23 (0.88-1.72)    25 0.93 (0.67-1.29)   
  11-12 years 56 1    58 1   
   Tertiary 4 0.59 (0.29-1.19)    6 1.10 (0.59-2.04)   
  Occupation Employed 19 0.49 (0.34-0.70) 0.50 (0.34-0.73) <0.001 27 1   
  Unemployed 65 1 1   57 1.02 (0.74-1.41)   
   Student 17 1.03 (0.68-1.55) 0.86 (0.55-1.34)   16 1.21 (0.80-1.82)   
  Income from work Yes 41 0.68 (0.51-0.91)    48 1   
  No 59 1    52 0.89 (0.67-1.18)   
  Children under care 0 31 1.31 (0.92-1.87)    24 0.69 (0.49-0.98)   
  1 29 0.95 (0.67-1.35)    31 0.88 (0.63-1.23)   
   2+ 38 1    44 1   
  Cohabiting No partner 18 1.10 (0.74-1.62)    18 1.06 (0.72-1.54)   
  Living apart 66 1    69 1   
   Cohabiting 16 1.27 (0.84-1.92)    13 0.81 (0.54-1.22)   
Behaviour indicative of increased risk for HIV & Perceptions of HIV Recent sexual partners 0 Partners 21 1.07 (0.75-1.53)    21 1.09 (0.76-1.54)   
1 Partner 72 1    72 1   
2 + Partners 7 0.93 (0.53-1.62)    7 0.80 (0.47-1.38)   
Recent condom use No partners 21 0.93 (0.61-1.42)    21 0.80 (0.53-1.21) 0.80 (0.52-1.23) 0.04
Never 29 0.76 (0.52-1.12)    30 0.63 (0.43-0.91) 0.62 (0.42-0.91)  
Sometimes 22 0.99 (0.64-1.49)    18 0.58 (0.39-0.88) 0.57 (0.37-0.88)  
   Always 28 1    30 1   
  No. of lifetime partners 1 partner      32 1.33 (0.90-1.96)   
  2 partners      23 1   
   3-4 partners      25 0.96 (0.65-1.42)   
   5 + partners      20 1.07 (0.70-1.63)   
  Age at first sex < 15 years      20 1.11 (0.76-1.63)   
  16-17 years      35 1.05 (0.77-1.44)   
   18 < years      45 1   
  Lifetime alcohol Yes 42 1.11 (0.83-1.48)    39 0.86 (0.64-1.13)   
  No 58 1    61 1   
  Lifetime drugs Yes 7 0.76 (0.44-1.30)    8 0.88 (0.53-1.46)   
  No 93 1    92 1   
  Ever discussion about HIV No 19 1 1 <0.001 91 1 1 <0.001
  Yes 81 2.62 (1.86-3.69) 2.87 (2.02-4.09)   9 2.06 (1.34-3.18) 2.02 (1.28-3.19)  
  Social norms for testing Unfavourable 27 1    31 1   
  Intermediate 43 1.28 (0.90-1.81)    40 0.88 (0.63-1.23)   
   Favourable 29 1.21 (0.83-1.77)    29 1.00 (0.69-1.44)   
  Stigma Score Low 34 1    33 1   
   Intermediate 33 0.82 (0.57-1.16)    36 1.01 (0.72-1.43)   
   High 33 0.86 (0.60-1.22)    31 0.80 (0.57-1.14)   
  Perception of ART Not heard of ART 25 1.07 (0.72-1.60)    20 0.50 (0.33-0.74) 0.51 (0.33-0.79) <0.001
  Low 24 0.64 (0.43-0.94)    26 0.49 (0.34-0.72) 0.49 (0.33-0.75)  
   Medium 20 0.86 (0.57-1.31)    20 0.60 (0.40-0.91) 0.59 (0.38-0.91)  
   High 31 1    35 1 1  
  1. *Model is adjusted for Gender, Age, Occupation and Report of a discussion about HIV.
  2. **Model is adjusted for Gender, Age, Socio-economic status, Recent condom use, Report of a discussion about HIV and Perception of ART.
  3. Bold indicates Significant at the 95% confidence level.