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Table 1 Baseline demographics of the study population stratified by daily cocaine injection in the past 6 months (n = 2330)

From: The impact of drug use patterns on mortality among polysubstance users in a Canadian setting: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Total (%) Daily cocaine injection   
   Yes (%) No (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
  (n = 2330) (n = 1588) (n = 728)   
HIV serostatus      
 Positive 640 (27.5) 212 (29.1) 426 (26.8) 1.12 (0.92 – 1.36) 0.247
 Negative 1688 (72.5) 515 (70.7) 1161 (73.1)   
Gender      
 Male 1550 (66.5) 444 (61.0) 1098 (69.1) 0.70 (0.58 – 0.84) <0.001
 Female 780 (33.5) 284 (39.0) 490 (30.9)   
Ethnicity      
 Caucasian 1424 (61.1) 413 (56.7) 1001 (63.0) 0.77 (0.64 – 0.92) 0.004
 Other 906 (38.9) 315 (43.3) 587 (37.0)   
Unstable housing*      
 Yes 1637 (70.3) 556 (76.4) 1072 (67.5) 1.62 (1.32 – 1.99) <0.001
 No 677 (29.1) 163 (22.4) 509 (32.1)   
Median age (IQR)      
 Per 10 year older 37.3 (14.3) 35.3 (13.4) 38.4 (14.1) 0.76 (0.69 – 0.83) <0.001
Median time since first injection (IQR)      
 Per 10 year longer 14.4 (18.0) 14.1 (16.3) 14.6 (18.8) 0.91 (0.84 – 0.99) 0.033
Daily alcohol use*      
 Yes 550 (23.6) 179 (24.6) 368 (23.2) 1.10 (0.88 – 1.33) 0.450
 No 1775 (76.2) 547 (75.1) 1217 (76.6)   
Daily heroin injection*      
 Yes 901 (38.7) 345 (47.4) 555 (35.0) 1.68 (1.40 – 2.00) <0.001
 No 1424 (61.1) 383 (52.6) 1033 (65.1)   
Daily heroin (non-injection)*      
 Yes 97 (4.2) 30 (4.1) 66 (4.2) 0.99 (0.64 – 1.54) 0.969
 No 2230 (95.7) 697 (95.7) 1520 (95.7)   
Daily amphetamine injection*      
 Yes 51 (2.2) 7 (1.0) 44 (2.8) 0.34 (0.15 – 0.76) 0.006
 No 2274 (97.6) 721 (99.0) 1542 (97.1)   
Daily amphetamine (non-injection)*      
 Yes 7 (0.3) 1 (0.1) 6 (0.4) 0.36 (0.04 – 3.02) 0.445
  2322 (99.7) 727 (99.9) 1581 (99.6)   
Daily crack cocaine smoking*      
 Yes 560 (24.0) 137 (18.8) 420 (26.5) 0.65 (0.52 – 0.80) <0.001
 No 1767 (75.8) 589 (80.9) 1167 (73.5)   
Daily speedball injection*      
 Yes 288 (12.4) 216 (29.7) 71 (4.5) 9.01 (6.77 – 12.00) <0.001
 No 2038 (87.5) 512 (70.3) 1516 (95.5)   
  1. *Refers to activities in the six months prior to interview. IQR = Interquartile range. Fisher’s Exact Test.